'Referral advice' recommendation details
Source guidance details
- Healthcare professionals in primary care should consider contact with and/or referral to secondary or forensic services where there is current violence or threats that suggest significant risk and/or a history of serious violence, including predatory offending or targeting of children or other vulnerable people.
- Services should develop a comprehensive risk management plan for people with antisocial personality disorder who are considered to be of high risk. The plan should involve other agencies in health and social care services and the criminal justice system. Probation services should take the lead role when the person is on a community sentence or is on licence from prison with mental health and social care services providing support and liaison. Such cases should routinely be referred to the local Multi-Agency Public Protection Panel.
- For people with antisocial personality disorder who are in institutional care and who misuse or are dependent on drugs or alcohol, consider referral to a specialist therapeutic community focused on the treatment of drug and alcohol problems.
- When a person with learning or physical disabilities or acquired cognitive impairments presents with symptoms and behaviour that suggest antisocial personality disorder, staff involved in assessment and diagnosis should consider consulting with a relevant specialist.
- Admission to inpatient services solely for the treatment of antisocial personality disorder or its associated risks is likely to be a lengthy process and should be under the care of forensic/specialist personality disorder services.
- Staff working in primary and secondary care services (for example, drug and alcohol services) and community services (for example, the probation service) that include a high proportion of people with antisocial personality disorder should be alert to the possibility of antisocial personality disorder in service users. Where antisocial personality disorder is suspected and the person is seeking help, consider offering a referral to an appropriate forensic mental health service depending on the nature of the presenting complaint. For example, for depression and anxiety this may be to general mental health services; for problems directly relating to the personality disorder it may be to a specialist personality disorder or forensic service.
- For people with antisocial personality disorder, including those with substance misuse problems, in community and mental health services, consider offering group-based cognitive and behavioural interventions, in order to address problems such as impulsivity, interpersonal difficulties and antisocial behaviour. For people with antisocial personality disorder with a history of offending behaviour who are in community and institutional care, consider offering group-based cognitive and behavioural interventions (for example, programmes such as 'reasoning and rehabilitation') focused on reducing offending and other antisocial behaviour. For young offenders aged 17 years or younger with a history of offending behaviour who are in institutional care, offer group-based cognitive and behavioural interventions aimed at young offenders and that are focused on reducing offending and other antisocial behaviour.
- For people in community and institutional settings who meet criteria for psychopathy or dangerous and severe personality disorder (DSPD), consider cognitive and behavioural interventions (for example, programmes such as 'reasoning and rehabilitation') focused on reducing offending and other antisocial behaviour.
- Early interventions aimed at reducing the risk of the development of conduct problems, and antisocial personality disorder at a later age, may be considered for children identified to be of high risk of developing conduct problems. These should be targeted at the parents of children with identified high-risk factors and include: - non-maternal care (such as well-staffed nursery care) for children younger than 1 year - interventions to improve poor parenting skills for the parents of children younger than 3 years. Early interventions should usually be provided by health and social care professionals over a period of 6-12 months, and should consist of well-structured, manualised programmes that are closely adhered to target multiple risk factors (such as parenting, school behaviour, and parental health and employment).
- Group-based parent-training/education programmes are recommended in the management of children with conduct disorders. These may be accessed in primary or secondary care according to local arrangements. Individual-based parent-training/education programmes are recommended in the management of children with conduct disorders only in situations where there are particular difficulties in engaging with the parents or a family's needs are too complex to be met by group-based parent-training/education programmes.
- Public health
- Mental health and behavioural conditions
- General psychiatry
This page was last updated: 22 August 2012