The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland on endoaortic balloon occlusion for cardiac surgery.
During major heart surgery, the flow of blood through the heart needs to be stopped temporarily. In endoaortic balloon occlusion, a flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon attached to its tip is inserted into an artery in the groin (femoral artery) and threaded up to the heart. When the catheter is in the correct position in the heart, the balloon is filled with saline. As the balloon expands it blocks the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. With the aorta blocked, the heart surgery can be performed. After heart surgery, the balloon and catheter are removed and the blood flow is restored.
This guidance represents the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take this guidance fully into account. However, the guidance does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.
Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the guidance, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this guidance should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.