Appendix: Search strategy and evidence selection

Appendix: Search strategy and evidence selection

Search strategy

The sources are:

  1. NHS Evidence (including guidelines)

  2. NICE

  3. Broad internet search: Google, for example: tranexamic acid AND (haemorrhage OR hemorrhage) AND ~guideline OR ~algorithm) filetype:pdf

MEDLINE & Embase (via Ovid)

  1. Tranexamic Acid/

  2. (Tranexamic Acid or Cyklokapron or AMCA or AMCHA or Amchafibrin or Anvitoff or Exacyl or KABI 2161 or Spotof or t-AMCHA or Transamin or Ugurol or Lysteda).tw.

  3. "trans-4-(Aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic".tw.

  4. 1 or 2 or 3

  5. (haemorrhage or hemorrhage or bleeding or blood loss).tw.

  6. exp Hemorrhage/

  7. 5 or 6

  8. (injur$ or trauma$).tw.

  9. exp Wounds/ and Injuries/

  10. 8 or 9

  11. 7 and 10

  12. 4 and 11

  13. exp review/

  14. (scisearch or psychinfo or psycinfo or medlars or embase or psychlit or psyclit or cinahl or pubmed or medline).ti,ab,sh.

  15. ((hand adj2 search$) or (manual$ adj2 search$)).ti,ab,sh.

  16. ((electronic or bibliographic or computeri?ed or online) adj4 database$).ti,ab.

  17. (pooling or pooled or mantel haenszel).ti,ab,sh.

  18. (peto or dersimonian or der simonian or fixed effect).ti,ab,sh.

  19. or/14-18

  20. 13 and 19

  21. Meta Analysis/

  22. (meta-analys$ or meta analys$ or metaanalys$).ti,ab,sh.

  23. ((systematic$ or quantitativ$ or methodologic$) adj5 (review$ or overview$ or synthesis$)).ti,ab,sh.

  24. (integrative research review$ or research integration).ti,ab,sh.

  25. or/21-24

  26. 20 or 25

  27. clinical trials, phase iv/ or clinical trials, phase iii/ or randomized controlled trials/ or multicenter studies/

  28. (random$ or placebo$ or ((singl$ or double$ or triple$ or treble$) and (blind$ or mask$))).ti,ab,sh.

  29. 27 or 28

  30. (animal$ not human$).sh.

  31. 29 not 30

  32. 26 or 31

  33. cost?.tw,hw.

  34. (economic? or expenditure?).tw,hw.

  35. 33 or 34

  36. 32 or 35

  37. 12 and 36

CRD HTA, DARE and EED database

  1. MeSH DESCRIPTOR Tranexamic Acid

  2. (Tranexamic acid ) OR (Cyklokapron)      

  3. #1 OR #2             

  4. (haemorrhage OR hemorrhage OR bleeding OR blood loss)         


  6. #4 OR #5             

  7. #3 AND #6

  8. (injur* OR trauma*)


  10. #9 OR #10

  11. #7 AND #10


Tranexamic acid OR Cyklokapron

Manufacturers' websites

Fides Ecopharma n/a
Pharmygiène n/a

Evidence selection

Studies were included based on predetermined criteria for relevance to the question set at scoping. Individual studies were scored for validity using the methods and checklists described in the appendices of the NICE guidelines method manual. The highest quality research was selected as the basis for answering the questions set on efficacy, safety and cost. The CRASH-2 trial was the main reference used for this report, supplementary, sub-group or exploratory trials were also included if these have been published and were based on the CRASH-2 trial data.