The following clinicians contributed to this briefing:
Benjamin Ayres, consultant urological surgeon, St Georges University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Has received funding to attend conferences and lecture fees for teaching. Was also involved in a trial of pembrolizumab in high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer as chief investigator for the UK.
James Catto, professor in urological surgery, University of Sheffield, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. Involved in a trial of using erdafitnib in people whose disease did not respond to Bacille Calmette‑Guérin (BCG) treatment and a clinical trial comparing BCG with radical cystectomy in people who had not had BCG treatment.
Sanjeev Madaan, consultant urological surgeon and lead cancer clinician, Darent Valley Hospital. Did not declare any interests.