This guideline covers diagnosing and managing first or recurrent upper or lower urinary tract infections in infants, children and young people. It aims to achieve more consistent clinical practice, based on accurate diagnosis and effective management.
In October 2018, we updated or replaced recommendations on acute pyelonephritis and lower urinary tract infection to bring them in line with NICE’s antimicrobial prescribing guidelines on pyelonephritis (acute), urinary tract infection (lower) and urinary tract infection (recurrent).
This guideline includes recommendations on:
- investigations and diagnosis
- acute management
- imaging tests
- surgical intervention
- information and advice for children, young people and parents or carers
Who is it for?
- Healthcare professionals
- Infants and children from birth up to the age of 16 years with urinary tract infection, their families and carers
Is this guideline up to date?
We checked this guideline in February 2021. The findings of this exceptional review will be considered as part of the planned guideline update. See the guideline in development page for progress on the update.
Guideline development process
This guideline was previously called urinary tract infection in children: diagnosis, treatment and long-term management.
The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take this guideline fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients or the people using their service. It is not mandatory to apply the recommendations, and the guideline does not override the responsibility to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual, in consultation with them and their families and carers or guardian.
All problems (adverse events) related to a medicine or medical device used for treatment or in a procedure should be reported to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency using the Yellow Card Scheme.
Local commissioners and providers of healthcare have a responsibility to enable the guideline to be applied when individual professionals and people using services wish to use it. They should do so in the context of local and national priorities for funding and developing services, and in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties.
Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.