1.1 Current evidence on intramuscular diaphragm stimulation for ventilator-dependent chronic respiratory failure caused by high spinal cord injuries shows that there are serious but well-recognised safety concerns. Evidence on efficacy is limited in quantity and quality. Therefore, this procedure should only be used in the context of research.
1.2 Further research should give details of patient selection, patient-reported outcomes and long-term effects including survival and quality of life. NICE may update the guidance on publication of further evidence.