1.1 Current evidence on endoscopic bipolar radiofrequency ablation for treating biliary obstruction caused by cancer shows there are serious but well recognised safety concerns. Evidence on efficacy is limited in quality and quantity. Therefore, this procedure should only be used in the context of research, which should include randomised controlled trials. Find out what only in research means on the NICE interventional procedures guidance page.
1.2 Further research should address: patient selection, relief of biliary obstruction, quality of life and survival.