1 Recommendations

1 Recommendations

1.1 Current evidence on the safety and efficacy of low-energy contact X‑ray brachytherapy (the Papillon technique) for locally advanced rectal cancer is inadequate in quantity and quality. Therefore, this procedure should only be used in the context of research.

1.2 Further research should include randomised controlled trials comparing this procedure with standard care and report details of patient selection (including tumour type and suitability for surgery), patient-reported outcomes, quality of life and long-term outcomes.

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)