The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland on stent placement for vena caval obstruction.


Vena caval obstruction is narrowing or occlusion of the caval veins (the inferior vena cava or the superior vena cava), which return blood from the body to the heart. It is most commonly caused by cancer, especially lung cancer. Patients with malignant vena caval obstruction are very unwell and have a short life expectancy.

Standard treatments for malignant caval obstruction include radiotherapy and chemotherapy. These can cause severe adverse events and response to treatment may take several weeks. Stent placement can replace or supplement these treatments.

Stent placement for vena caval obstruction is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter into a large vein, usually in the groin, and passing it into the narrowed area under X-ray control. A stent, which may be self-expanding or balloon-dilated, is then positioned across the area of narrowing to relieve it.

Coding and clinical classification codes for this guidance.