1 Recommendations

The following guidance is based on the best available evidence. The full guideline gives details of the methods and the evidence used to develop the guidance.

The recommendations apply to men referred to secondary care with suspected or diagnosed prostate cancer, including follow-up in primary care for men with diagnosed prostate cancer. The recommendations do not apply to men with an abnormal PSA (prostate-specific antigen) level detected in primary care who have no symptoms and are not referred for subsequent investigation.

The wording used in the recommendations in this guideline (for example, words such as 'offer' and 'consider') denotes the certainty with which the recommendation is made (the strength of the recommendation). See About this guideline for details.

1.1 Information and decision support for men with prostate cancer, their partners and carers

Information

1.1.1 Follow the recommendations on communication and patient-centred care in the NICE cancer service guidance Improving outcomes in urological cancers and Improving supportive and palliative care for adults with cancer throughout the patient journey. [2008]

1.1.2 Offer men with prostate cancer individualised information tailored to their own needs. This information should be given by a healthcare professional (for example, a consultant or specialist nurse) and may be supported by written and visual media (for example, slide sets or DVDs). [2008]

1.1.3 Offer men with prostate cancer advice on how to access information and support from websites, local and national cancer information services, and from cancer support groups. [2008]

1.1.4 Before choosing or recommending information resources for men with prostate cancer, check that their content is clear, reliable and up to date. Seek feedback from men with prostate cancer and their carers to identify the highest quality information resources. [2008]

Decision support

1.1.5 Ascertain the extent to which the man wishes to be involved in decision-making and ensure that he has sufficient information to do so. [2008]

1.1.6 Use a validated, up-to-date decision aid[1] in all urological cancer multidisciplinary teams (MDTs). Healthcare professionals trained in its use should offer it to men with localised prostate cancer when making treatment decisions. [2008]

1.1.7 Nomograms may be used by healthcare professionals in partnership with men with prostate cancer to:

  • aid decision-making

  • help predict biopsy results

  • help predict pathological stage

  • help predict risk of treatment failure. [2008]

1.1.8 When nomograms are used, clearly explain the reliability, validity and limitations of the prediction. [2008]

1.1.9 Discuss all relevant management options recommended in this guideline with men with prostate cancer and their partners or carers, irrespective of whether they are available through local services. [2008]

1.1.10 Tell men:

  • about treatment options and their risks and benefits[1] in an objective, unbiased manner and

  • that there is limited evidence for some treatment options. [new 2014]

1.1.11 Ensure that mechanisms are in place to allow men with prostate cancer and their primary care providers to gain access to specialist services throughout the course of their disease. [2008]

1.1.12 Adequately inform men with prostate cancer and their partners or carers about the effects of prostate cancer and the treatment options on their sexual function, physical appearance, continence and other aspects of masculinity. Support men and their partners or carers in making treatment decisions, taking into account the effects on quality of life as well as survival. [2008]

1.1.13 Offer men with prostate cancer and their partners or carers the opportunity to talk to a healthcare professional experienced in dealing with psychosexual issues at any stage of the illness and its treatment. [2008]

1.2 Assessment

Diagnosis

Biopsy

1.2.1 To help men decide whether to have a prostate biopsy, discuss with them their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, digital rectal examination (DRE) findings (including an estimate of prostate size) and comorbidities, together with their risk factors (including increasing age and black African-Caribbean family origin) and any history of a previous negative prostate biopsy. Do not automatically offer a prostate biopsy on the basis of serum PSA level alone. [2008]

1.2.2 Give men and their partners or carers information, support and adequate time to decide whether or not they wish to undergo prostate biopsy. Include an explanation of the risks (including the increased chance of having to live with the diagnosis of clinically insignificant prostate cancer) and benefits of prostate biopsy. [2008]

1.2.3 If the clinical suspicion of prostate cancer is high, because of a high PSA value and evidence of bone metastases (identified by a positive isotope bone scan or sclerotic metastases on plain radiographs), do not offer prostate biopsy for histological confirmation, unless this is required as part of a clinical trial. [2008]

1.2.4 Carry out prostate biopsy following the procedure recommended by the Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme in Undertaking a transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate. [2008]

1.2.5 A core member of the urological cancer MDT should review the risk factors of all men who have had a negative first prostate biopsy, and discuss with the man that:

  • there is still a risk that prostate cancer is present and

  • the risk is slightly higher if any of the following risk factors are present:

    • the biopsy showed high-grade prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (HGPIN)

    • the biopsy showed atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP)

    • abnormal digital rectal examination. [new 2014]

Magnetic resonance imaging for rebiopsy

1.2.6 Consider multiparametric MRI (using T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging) for men with a negative transrectal ultrasound 10–12 core biopsy to determine whether another biopsy is needed. [new 2014]

1.2.7 Do not offer another biopsy if the multiparametric MRI (using T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging) is negative, unless any of the risk factors listed in recommendation 1.2.5 are present. [new 2014]

Staging

1.2.8 Determine the provisional treatment intent (radical or non-radical) before decisions on imaging are made. [2008]

1.2.9 Do not routinely offer imaging to men who are not candidates for radical treatment. [2008]

1.2.10 Offer isotope bone scans when hormonal therapy is being deferred through watchful waiting to asymptomatic men who are at high risk of developing bone complications. [2008]

1.2.11 Consider multiparametric MRI, or CT if MRI is contraindicated, for men with histologically proven prostate cancer if knowledge of the T or N stage could affect management. [new 2014]

1.2.12 Urological cancer MDTs should assign a risk category (see table 1) to all newly diagnosed men with localised prostate cancer. [2008]

Table 1 Risk stratification for men with localised prostate cancer

Level of risk

PSA

Gleason score

Clinical stage

Low risk

<10 ng/ml

and

≤6

and

T1–T2a

Intermediate risk

10–20 ng/ml

or

7

or

T2b

High risk1

>20 ng/ml

or

8–10

or

≥T2c

1 High-risk localised prostate cancer is also included in the definition of locally advanced prostate cancer.

1.2.13 Do not offer CT of the pelvis to men with low- or intermediate-risk localised prostate cancer (see table 1). [2008]

1.2.14 Do not routinely offer isotope bone scans to men with low-risk localised prostate cancer. [2008]

1.2.15 Do not offer positron emission tomography imaging for prostate cancer in routine clinical practice. [2008]

1.3 Localised and locally advanced prostate cancer

1.3.1 Prior to radical treatment, warn men and, if they wish, their partner, that radical treatment for prostate cancer will result in an alteration of sexual experience, and may result in loss of sexual function. [2008, amended 2014]

1.3.2 Warn men and, if they wish, their partner, about the potential loss of ejaculation and fertility associated with radical treatment for prostate cancer. Offer sperm storage. [2008, amended 2014]

1.3.3 Warn men undergoing radical treatment for prostate cancer of the likely effects of the treatment on their urinary function. [2008, amended 2014]

1.3.4 Offer men experiencing troublesome urinary symptoms before treatment a urological assessment. [2008]

1.3.5 Given the range of treatment modalities and their serious side effects, men with prostate cancer who are candidates for radical treatment should have the opportunity to discuss their treatment options with a specialist surgical oncologist and a specialist clinical oncologist. [2008]

1.3.6 Tell men that there is a small increase in the risk of colorectal cancer after radical external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. [new 2014]

Low-risk localised prostate cancer

Active surveillance

1.3.7 Offer active surveillance (in line with recommendation 1.3.8) as an option to men with low-risk localised prostate cancer for whom radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy is suitable. [new 2014]

1.3.8 Consider using the protocol in table 2 for men who have chosen active surveillance. [new 2014]

Table 2 Protocol for active surveillance

Timing

Tests 1

At enrolment in active surveillance

Multiparametric MRI if not previously performed

Year 1 of active surveillance

Every 3–4 months: measure PSA2

Throughout active surveillance: monitor PSA kinetics3

Every 6–12 months: DRE4

At 12 months: prostate rebiopsy

Years 2–4 of active surveillance

Every 3–6 months: measure PSA2

Throughout active surveillance: monitor PSA kinetics3

Every 6–12 months: DRE4

Year 5 and every year thereafter until active surveillance ends

Every 6 months: measure PSA2

Throughout active surveillance: monitor PSA kinetics3

Every 12 months: DRE4

1 If there is concern about clinical or PSA changes at any time during active surveillance, reassess with multiparametric MRI and/or rebiopsy.

2 May be carried out in primary care if there are agreed shared-care protocols and recall systems.

3 May include PSA doubling time and velocity.

4 Should be performed by a healthcare professional with expertise and confidence in performing DRE.

1.3.9 The decision to proceed from an active surveillance regimen to radical treatment should be made in the light of the individual man's personal preferences, comorbidities and life expectancy. [2008]

Radical treatment

1.3.10 Offer radical treatment to men with localised prostate cancer who have chosen an active surveillance regimen and who have evidence of disease progression. [2008, amended 2014]

Intermediate- and high-risk localised prostate cancer

Active surveillance

1.3.11 Consider active surveillance (in line with recommendation 1.3.8) for men with intermediate-risk localised prostate cancer who do not wish to have immediate radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy. [new 2014]

1.3.12 Do not offer active surveillance to men with high-risk localised prostate cancer. [2014]

Radical treatment

1.3.13 Offer radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy to men with intermediate-risk localised prostate cancer. [2008]

1.3.14 Offer radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy to men with high-risk localised prostate cancer when there is a realistic prospect of long-term disease control. [2008]

1.3.15 Commissioners of urology services should consider providing robotic surgery to treat localised prostate cancer. [new 2014]

1.3.16 Commissioners should ensure that robotic systems for the surgical treatment of localised prostate cancer are cost effective by basing them in centres that are expected to perform at least 150 robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies per year. [new 2014]

1.3.17 Offer men undergoing radical external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer a minimum dose of 74 Gy to the prostate at no more than 2 Gy per fraction. [2008]

1.3.18 For men with localised prostate cancer[2] receiving radical external beam radiotherapy with curative intent, offer planned treatment techniques that optimise the dose to the tumour while minimising the risks of normal tissue damage. [2008]

1.3.19 Offer men with intermediate- and high-risk localised prostate cancer a combination of radical radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy, rather than radical radiotherapy or androgen deprivation therapy alone. [new 2014]

1.3.20 Offer men with intermediate- and high-risk localised prostate cancer 6 months of androgen deprivation therapy before, during or after radical external beam radiotherapy. [new 2014]

1.3.21 Consider continuing androgen deprivation therapy for up to 3 years for men with high-risk localised prostate cancer and discuss the benefits and risks of this option with them. [new 2014]

1.3.22 Consider high-dose rate brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy for men with intermediate- and high-risk localised prostate cancer. [new 2014]

1.3.23 Do not offer brachytherapy alone to men with high-risk localised prostate cancer. [2008]

1.3.24 Do not offer high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy to men with localised prostate cancer other than in the context of controlled clinical trials comparing their use with established interventions[3]. [2008]

Watchful waiting

1.3.25 A member of the urological cancer MDT should review men with localised prostate cancer who have chosen a watchful waiting regimen and who have evidence of significant disease progression (that is, rapidly rising PSA level or bone pain). [2008]

Locally advanced prostate cancer

1.3.26 Clinical oncologists should consider pelvic radiotherapy in men with locally advanced prostate cancer who have a higher than 15% risk of pelvic lymph node involvement[4] and who are to receive neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and radical radiotherapy. [2008]

1.3.27 Do not offer immediate post-operative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy, even to men with margin-positive disease, other than in the context of a clinical trial. [2008]

1.3.28 Do not offer adjuvant hormonal therapy in addition to radical prostatectomy, even to men with margin-positive disease, other than in the context of a clinical trial. [2008]

1.3.29 Do not offer high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy to men with locally advanced prostate cancer other than in the context of controlled clinical trials comparing their use with established interventions[3]. [2008]

1.3.30 Do not offer bisphosphonates for the prevention of bone metastases in men with prostate cancer. [2008]

Managing adverse effects of radical treatment

Sexual dysfunction

1.3.31 Ensure that men have early and ongoing access to specialist erectile dysfunction services. [2008, amended 2014]

1.3.32 Offer men with prostate cancer who experience loss of erectile function phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors to improve their chance of spontaneous erections. [2008]

1.3.33 If PDE5 inhibitors fail to restore erectile function or are contraindicated, offer men vacuum devices, intraurethral inserts or penile injections, or penile prostheses as an alternative. [2008]

Urinary incontinence

1.3.34 Ensure that men with troublesome urinary symptoms after treatment have access to specialist continence services for assessment, diagnosis and conservative treatment. This may include coping strategies, along with pelvic floor muscle re-education, bladder retraining and pharmacotherapy. [2008]

1.3.35 Refer men with intractable stress incontinence to a specialist surgeon for consideration of an artificial urinary sphincter. [2008]

1.3.36 Do not offer injection of bulking agents into the distal urinary sphincter to treat stress incontinence. [2008]

Radiation-induced enteropathy

1.3.37 Ensure that men with signs or symptoms of radiation-induced enteropathy are offered care from a team of professionals with expertise in radiation-induced enteropathy (who may include oncologists, gastroenterologists, bowel surgeons, dietitians and specialist nurses). [new 2014]

1.3.38 The nature and treatment of radiation-induced enteropathy should be included in the training programmes for oncologists and gastroenterologists. [2014]

1.3.39 Carry out full investigations, including flexible sigmoidoscopy, in men who have symptoms of radiation-induced enteropathy to exclude inflammatory bowel disease or malignancy of the large bowel and to ascertain the nature of the radiation injury. Use caution when performing anterior wall rectal biopsy after brachytherapy because of the risk of fistulation. [2014]

Follow-up

1.3.40 Discuss the purpose, duration, frequency and location of follow-up with each man with localised prostate cancer[2], and if he wishes, his partner or carers. [2008]

1.3.41 Clearly advise men with prostate cancer about potential longer-term adverse effects of treatment and when and how to report them. [2008]

1.3.42 Men with prostate cancer who have chosen a watchful waiting regimen with no curative intent should normally be followed up in primary care in accordance with protocols agreed by the local urological cancer MDT and the relevant primary care organisation(s). Their PSA should be measured at least once a year. [2008]

1.3.43 Check PSA levels for all men with prostate cancer who are having radical treatment at the earliest 6 weeks following treatment, at least every 6 months for the first 2 years and then at least once a year thereafter. [2008]

1.3.44 Do not routinely offer DRE to men with localised prostate cancer while the PSA remains at baseline levels. [2008]

1.3.45 After at least 2 years, offer follow-up outside hospital (for example, in primary care) by telephone or secure electronic communications to men with a stable PSA who have had no significant treatment complications, unless they are taking part in a clinical trial that requires formal clinic-based follow-up. Direct access to the urological cancer MDT should be offered and explained. [2008]

Managing relapse after radical treatment

1.3.46 Analyse serial PSA levels after radical treatment using the same assay technique. [2008]

1.3.47 Do not offer biopsy of the prostatic bed to men with prostate cancer who have had a radical prostatectomy. [2008]

1.3.48 Offer biopsy of the prostate after radiotherapy only to men with prostate cancer who are being considered for local salvage therapy in the context of a clinical trial. [2008]

1.3.49 For men with evidence of biochemical relapse following radical treatment and who are considering radical salvage therapy:

  • do not offer routine MRI scanning prior to salvage radiotherapy in men with prostate cancer

  • offer an isotope bone scan if symptoms or PSA trends are suggestive of metastases. [2008]

1.3.50 Biochemical relapse (a rising PSA) alone should not necessarily prompt an immediate change in treatment. [2008]

1.3.51 Biochemical relapse should trigger an estimate of PSA doubling time, based on a minimum of 3 measurements over at least a 6‑month period. [2008]

1.3.52 Offer men with biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy, with no known metastases, radical radiotherapy to the prostatic bed. [2008]

1.3.53 Men with biochemical relapse should be considered for entry to appropriate clinical trials. [2008]

1.3.54 Do not routinely offer hormonal therapy to men with prostate cancer who have a biochemical relapse unless they have:

  • symptomatic local disease progression, or

  • any proven metastases, or

  • a PSA doubling time of less than 3 months. [2008]

1.4 Men having hormone therapy

1.4.1 Consider intermittent therapy for men having long-term androgen deprivation therapy (not in the adjuvant setting), and include discussion with the man, and his partner, family or carers if he wishes, about:

  • the rationale for intermittent therapy and

  • the limited evidence for reduction in side effects from intermittent therapy and

  • the effect of intermittent therapy on progression of prostate cancer. [new 2014]

1.4.2 For men who are having intermittent androgen deprivation therapy:

  • measure PSA every 3 months and

  • restart androgen deprivation therapy if PSA is 10 ng/ml or above, or if there is symptomatic progression. [new 2014]

Managing adverse effects of hormone therapy

Hot flushes

1.4.3 Offer medroxyprogesterone[5] (20 mg per day), initially for 10 weeks, to manage troublesome hot flushes caused by long-term androgen suppression and evaluate the effect at the end of the treatment period. [new 2014]

1.4.4 Consider cyproterone acetate (50 mg twice a day for 4 weeks) to treat troublesome hot flushes if medroxyprogesterone is not effective or not tolerated. [new 2014]

1.4.5 Tell men that there is no good-quality evidence for the use of complementary therapies to treat troublesome hot flushes. [new 2014]

Sexual dysfunction

1.4.6 Before starting androgen deprivation therapy, tell men and, if they wish, their partner, that long-term androgen deprivation will cause a reduction in libido and possible loss of sexual function. [new 2014]

1.4.7 Advise men and, if they wish, their partner, about the potential loss of ejaculation and fertility associated with long-term androgen deprivation and offer sperm storage. [new 2014]

1.4.8 Ensure that men starting androgen deprivation therapy have access to specialist erectile dysfunction services. [new 2014]

1.4.9 Consider referring men who are having long-term androgen deprivation therapy, and their partners, for psychosexual counselling. [new 2014]

1.4.10 Offer PDE5 inhibitors to men having long-term androgen deprivation therapy who experience loss of erectile function. [new 2014]

1.4.11 If PDE5 inhibitors fail to restore erectile function or are contraindicated, offer a choice of:

  • intraurethral inserts

  • penile injections

  • penile prostheses

  • vacuum devices. [new 2014]

Osteoporosis

1.4.12 Do not routinely offer bisphosphonates to prevent osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer having androgen deprivation therapy. [2008]

1.4.13 Consider assessing fracture risk in men with prostate cancer who are having androgen deprivation therapy, in line with Osteoporosis (NICE clinical guideline 146). [new 2014]

1.4.14 Offer bisphosphonates to men who are having androgen deprivation therapy and have osteoporosis. [new 2014]

1.4.15 Consider denosumab for men who are having androgen deprivation therapy and have osteoporosis if bisphosphonates are contraindicated or not tolerated. [new 2014]

Gynaecomastia

1.4.16 For men starting long-term bicalutamide monotherapy (longer than 6 months), offer prophylactic radiotherapy to both breast buds within the first month of treatment. Choose a single fraction of 8 Gy using orthovoltage or electron beam radiotherapy. [2008]

1.4.17 If radiotherapy is unsuccessful in preventing gynaecomastia, weekly tamoxifen [6] should be considered. [2008]

Fatigue

1.4.18 Tell men who are starting androgen deprivation therapy that fatigue is a recognised side effect of this therapy and not necessarily a result of prostate cancer. [new 2014]

1.4.19 Offer men who are starting or having androgen deprivation therapy supervised resistance and aerobic exercise at least twice a week for 12 weeks to reduce fatigue and improve quality of life. [new 2014]

1.5 Metastatic prostate cancer

Information and support

1.5.1 Offer men with metastatic prostate cancer tailored information and access to specialist urology and palliative care teams to address the specific needs of men with metastatic prostate cancer. Offer them the opportunity to discuss any significant changes in their disease status or symptoms as these occur. [2008]

1.5.2 Integrate palliative interventions at any stage into coordinated care, and facilitate any transitions between care settings as smoothly as possible. [2008]

1.5.3 Discuss personal preferences for palliative care as early as possible with men with metastatic prostate cancer, their partners and carers. Tailor treatment/care plans accordingly and identify the preferred place of care. [2008]

1.5.4 Ensure that palliative care is available when needed and is not limited to the end of life. It should not be restricted to being associated with hospice care. [2008]

1.5.5 Offer a regular assessment of needs to men with metastatic prostate cancer. [2008]

Treatment

1.5.6 Offer bilateral orchidectomy to all men with metastatic prostate cancer as an alternative to continuous luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy. [2008]

1.5.7 Do not offer combined androgen blockade as a first-line treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer. [2008]

1.5.8 For men with metastatic prostate cancer who are willing to accept the adverse impact on overall survival and gynaecomastia in the hope of retaining sexual function, offer anti-androgen monotherapy with bicalutamide[7] (150 mg). [2008]

1.5.9 Begin androgen deprivation therapy and stop bicalutamide treatment in men with metastatic prostate cancer who are taking bicalutamide monotherapy and who do not maintain satisfactory sexual function. [2008]

Hormone-relapsed metastatic prostate cancer

Recommendations in this section marked with an asterisk are from Docetaxel for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer (NICE technology appraisal guidance 101).

1.5.10 When men with prostate cancer develop biochemical evidence of hormone-relapsed disease, their treatment options should be discussed by the urological cancer MDT with a view to seeking an oncologist and/or specialist palliative care opinion, as appropriate. [2008]

1.5.11 Docetaxel is recommended, within its licensed indications, as a treatment option for men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer only if their Karnofsky performance-status score is 60% or more. [2008]*

1.5.12 It is recommended that treatment with docetaxel should be stopped:

  • at the completion of planned treatment of up to 10 cycles, or

  • if severe adverse events occur, or

  • in the presence of progression of disease as evidenced by clinical or laboratory criteria, or by imaging studies. [2008]*

1.5.13 Repeat cycles of treatment with docetaxel are not recommended if the disease recurs after completion of the planned course of chemotherapy. [2008]*

1.5.14 Offer a corticosteroid such as dexamethasone (0.5 mg daily) as third-line hormonal therapy after androgen deprivation therapy and anti-androgen therapy to men with hormone-relapsed prostate cancer. [2008]

1.5.15 Offer spinal MRI to men with hormone-relapsed prostate cancer shown to have extensive metastases in the spine (for example, on a bone scan) if they develop any spinal-related symptoms. [2008]

1.5.16 Do not routinely offer spinal MRI to all men with hormone-relapsed prostate cancer and known bone metastases. [2008]

Bone-targeted therapies

1.5.17 Do not offer bisphosphonates to prevent or reduce the complications of bone metastases in men with hormone-relapsed prostate cancer. [2008]

1.5.18 Bisphosphonates for pain relief may be considered for men with hormone-relapsed prostate cancer when other treatments (including analgesics and palliative radiotherapy) have failed. Choose the oral or intravenous route of administration according to convenience, tolerability and cost. [2008]

1.5.19 Strontium-89 should be considered for men with hormone-relapsed prostate cancer and painful bone metastases, especially those men who are unlikely to receive myelosuppressive chemotherapy. [2008]

Pelvic-targeted therapies

1.5.20 Offer decompression of the upper urinary tract by percutaneous nephrostomy or by insertion of a double J stent to men with obstructive uropathy secondary to hormone-relapsed prostate cancer. [2008]

1.5.21 The option of no intervention should also be discussed with men with obstructive uropathy secondary to hormone-relapsed prostate cancer and remains a choice for some. [2008]



[1] A decision aid for men with localised prostate cancer is available from NHS Shared decision making.

[2] This may also apply to some men with locally advanced prostate cancer.

[3] NICE interventional procedure guidance 118, 119 and 145 evaluated the safety and efficacy of cryotherapy and high-intensity focused ultrasound for the treatment of prostate cancer. NICE clinical guidelines provide guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific diseases and conditions within the NHS. As there was a lack of evidence on quality of life benefits and long-term survival, these interventions are not recommended in this guideline.

[4] Estimated using the Roach formula; %LN risk = 2/3 PSA + (10x [Gleason score – 6])

[5] At the time of publication (January 2014), medroxyprogesterone did not have a UK marketing authorisation for this indication. The prescriber should follow relevant professional guidance, taking full responsibility for the decision. Informed consent should be obtained and documented. See the General Medical Council's Good practice in prescribing and managing medicines and devices for further information.

[6] At the time of publication (January 2014), tamoxifen did not have a UK marketing authorisation for this indication. The prescriber should follow relevant professional guidance, taking full responsibility for the decision. Informed consent should be obtained and documented. See the General Medical Council's Good practice in prescribing and managing medicines and devices for further information.

[7] At the time of publication (January 2014), bicalutamide did not have a UK marketing authorisation for this indication. The prescriber should follow relevant professional guidance, taking full responsibility for the decision. Informed consent should be obtained and documented. See the General Medical Council's Good practice in prescribing and managing medicines and devices for further information.

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)