About this guideline

NICE clinical guidelines are recommendations about the treatment and care of people with specific diseases and conditions.

NICE guidelines are developed in accordance with a scope that defines what the guideline will and will not cover.

This guideline was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Cancer. The Collaborating Centre worked with a Guideline Development Group, comprising healthcare professionals (including consultants, GPs and nurses), patients and carers, and technical staff, which reviewed the evidence and drafted the recommendations. The recommendations were finalised after public consultation.

The methods and processes for developing NICE clinical guidelines are described in The guidelines manual.

NICE produces guidance, standards and information on commissioning and providing high-quality healthcare, social care, and public health services. We have agreements to provide certain NICE services to Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Decisions on how NICE guidance and other products apply in those countries are made by ministers in the Welsh government, Scottish government, and Northern Ireland Executive. NICE guidance or other products may include references to organisations or people responsible for commissioning or providing care that may be relevant only to England.

Update information

This guideline updates and replaces NICE clinical guideline 58 (published February 2008).

Recommendations are marked as [new 2014], [2014], [2008] or [2008, amended 2014]:

  • [new 2014] indicates that the evidence has been reviewed and the recommendation has been added or updated

  • [2014] indicates that the evidence has been reviewed but no change has been made to the recommended action

  • [2008] indicates that the evidence has not been reviewed since 2008

  • [2008, amended 2014] indicates that the evidence has not been reviewed since 2008, but changes have been made to the recommendation wording that change the meaning (see below).

Recommendations from NICE clinical guideline 58 that have been amended

Recommendations are labelled [2008, amended 2014] if the evidence has not been reviewed since 2008 but changes have been made to the recommendation wording that change the meaning.

Recommendation in NICE clinical guideline 58

Recommendation in current guideline

Reason for change

Men with localised prostate cancer who have chosen an active surveillance regimen and who have evidence of disease progression (that is, a rise in PSA level or adverse findings on biopsy) should be offered radical treatment. [1.3.9]

Offer radical treatment to men with localised prostate cancer who have chosen an active surveillance regimen and who have evidence of disease progression. [1.3.10]

[2008, amended 2014]

The text 'that is, a rise in PSA level or adverse findings on biopsy' has been deleted because it is now inconsistent with the protocol recommended for active surveillance.

Prior to treatment, men and their partners should be warned that treatment for prostate cancer will result in an alteration of sexual experience, and may result in loss of sexual function. [1.4.6]

Prior to radical treatment, warn men and, if they wish, their partner, that radical treatment for prostate cancer will result in an alteration of sexual experience, and may result in loss of sexual function. [1.3.1] [2008, amended 2014]

The original wording has been amended to clarify that partners are covered by the recommendation only if the man wishes this to be the case. Wording has also been amended to clarify this recommendation relates to radical treatment.

Men and their partners should be warned about the potential loss of ejaculation and fertility associated with treatment for prostate cancer. Sperm storage should be offered. [1.4.7]

Warn men and, if they wish, their partner, about the potential loss of ejaculation and fertility associated with radical treatment for prostate cancer. Offer sperm storage. [1.3.2] [2008, amended 2014]

The original wording has been amended to clarify that partners are covered by the recommendation only if the man wishes this to be the case. Wording has also been amended to clarify this recommendation relates to radical treatment.

Men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer should be warned of the likely effects of the treatment on their urinary function. [1.4.12]

Warn men undergoing radical treatment for prostate cancer of the likely effects of the treatment on their urinary function. [1.3.3] [2008, amended 2014]

Wording has also been amended to clarify this recommendation relates to radical treatment.

Healthcare professionals should ensure that men and their partners have early and ongoing access to specialist erectile dysfunction services. [1.4.8]

Ensure that men have early and ongoing access to specialist erectile dysfunction services. [1.3.31] [2008, amended 2014]

The text 'and their partners' has been deleted as this only applies to the man.

Strength of recommendations

Some recommendations can be made with more certainty than others. The Guideline Development Group makes a recommendation based on the trade-off between the benefits and harms of an intervention, taking into account the quality of the underpinning evidence. For some interventions, the Guideline Development Group is confident that, given the information it has looked at, most patients would choose the intervention. The wording used in the recommendations in this guideline denotes the certainty with which the recommendation is made (the strength of the recommendation).

For all recommendations, NICE expects that there is discussion with the patient about the risks and benefits of the interventions, and their values and preferences. This discussion aims to help them to reach a fully informed decision (see also Patient-centred care).

Interventions that must (or must not) be used

We usually use 'must' or 'must not' only if there is a legal duty to apply the recommendation. Occasionally we use 'must' (or 'must not') if the consequences of not following the recommendation could be extremely serious or potentially life threatening.

Interventions that should (or should not) be used – a 'strong' recommendation

We use 'offer' (and similar words such as 'refer' or 'advise') when we are confident that, for the vast majority of patients, an intervention will do more good than harm, and be cost effective. We use similar forms of words (for example, 'Do not offer…') when we are confident that an intervention will not be of benefit for most patients.

Interventions that could be used

We use 'consider' when we are confident that an intervention will do more good than harm for most patients, and be cost effective, but other options may be similarly cost effective. The choice of intervention, and whether or not to have the intervention at all, is more likely to depend on the patient's values and preferences than for a strong recommendation, and so the healthcare professional should spend more time considering and discussing the options with the patient.

Recommendation wording in guideline updates

NICE began using this approach to denote the strength of recommendations in guidelines that started development after publication of the 2009 version of 'The guidelines manual' (January 2009). This does not apply to any recommendations ending [2008] (see Update information above for details about how recommendations are labelled). In particular, for recommendations labelled [2008] the word 'consider' may not necessarily be used to denote the strength of the recommendation.

Other versions of this guideline

The full guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment' contains details of the methods and evidence used to develop the guideline. It is published by the National Collaborating Centre for Cancer.

The recommendations from this guideline have been incorporated into a NICE Pathway.

We have produced information for the public about this guideline.

Implementation

Implementation tools and resources to help you put the guideline into practice are also available.

Your responsibility

This guidance represents the view of NICE, which was arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. Healthcare professionals are expected to take it fully into account when exercising their clinical judgement. However, the guidance does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer, and informed by the summaries of product characteristics of any drugs.

Implementation of this guidance is the responsibility of local commissioners and/or providers. Commissioners and providers are reminded that it is their responsibility to implement the guidance, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity and foster good relations. Nothing in this guidance should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.

Copyright

© National Institute for Health and Care Excellence 2014. All rights reserved. NICE copyright material can be downloaded for private research and study, and may be reproduced for educational and not-for-profit purposes. No reproduction by or for commercial organisations, or for commercial purposes, is allowed without the written permission of NICE.

ISBN: 978-1-4731-0404-4

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)