In 2007, the guideline committee made the following recommendations for research. The committee's full set of research recommendations is detailed in the full guideline.
A well designed cohort study investigating long-term outcomes including renal scarring and renal function of children who have had UTI should be conducted in the UK.
UTI and VUR in young children have been shown to be associated with both congenital and acquired renal damage. Progressive scarring is well documented in children with high grade VUR and recurrent UTI. Scarring has been associated with severe hypertension, proteinuria, complications in pregnancy and progression to established renal failure. These risks are likely to be greater in children with bilateral renal parenchymal defects. However, the frequency and magnitude of these risks for children with unilateral and bilateral renal damage are unclear. Knowledge of the risk of serious or progressive complications would be useful to determine the management of children with first-time and recurrent UTIs.