Appendix: Glossary of tools and criteria

Appendix: Glossary of tools and criteria


Prognostic score to identify people at high risk of stroke after a TIA.

It is calculated based on:

A – age (≥ 60 years, 1 point)

B – blood pressure at presentation (≥ 140/90 mmHg, 1 point)

C – clinical features (unilateral weakness, 2 points; speech disturbance without weakness, 1 point)

D – Duration of symptoms (≥ 60 minutes, 2 points; 10–59 minutes, 1 point)

The calculation of ABCD2 also includes the presence of diabetes (1 point).

Total scores range from 0 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).


Face Arm Speech Test. Used to screen for the diagnosis of stroke or TIA.

Facial weakness – can the person smile? Has their mouth or eye drooped?

Arm weakness – can the person raise both arms?

Speech problems – can the person speak clearly and understand what you say?

Test all three symptoms.


Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. Used to identify adults who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. It incorporates current weight status (body mass index or an alternative measure), unintentional weight loss in the past 3–6 months, and the effect of acute disease on nutritional intake.

Northern American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET)

European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST)

The NASCET and ECST methods both indicate the degree of stenosis as a percentage reduction in vessel diameter. The minimum diameter of the arteries caused by stenosis (which is the maximum point of blood constriction) is compared with another diameter that represents the normal diameter of the carotid arteries when the patient is healthy.

NASCET includes a measurement taken along a point of the internal carotid artery in a healthy area well beyond an area of the bulb that was caused by stenosis.

The ECST formula uses the estimated normal lumen diameter at the site of the lesion, based on a visual impression of where the normal artery wall was before development of the stenosis.


Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room. Scale used to establish the diagnosis of stroke or TIA. Factors assessed include: demographic details, blood pressure and blood glucose concentration; items on loss of consciousness and seizure activity; and physical assessment including facial weakness, arm weakness, leg weakness, speech disturbance and visual field defects.

ISBN: 978-1-4731-2426-4

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)