1.1 Current evidence on the safety and efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), as measured by reduction in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and biopsy findings, appears adequate to support the use of this procedure for the treatment of prostate cancer provided that the normal arrangements are in place for consent, audit and clinical governance.
1.2 The effects of HIFU for prostate cancer on quality of life and long-term survival remain uncertain. Clinicians should therefore ensure that patients understand the uncertainties and the alternative treatment options. Use of the Institute's information for the public is recommended.
1.3 Interpretation of the data was difficult because it was not clear from the literature when the procedure was used for primary or for salvage treatment. Further research and audit should address clinical outcomes, long-term survival and indications for treatment (differentiating between the use of the procedure for primary and for salvage treatment).