1.1 Current evidence on the safety and efficacy of cryotherapy, measured by reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and biopsy findings, appears adequate to support the use of this procedure as a primary treatment in patients with prostate cancer provided that normal arrangements are in place for consent, audit and clinical governance.
1.2 The effects of cryotherapy as a primary treatment for prostate cancer on quality of life and long-term survival remain uncertain. Clinicians should therefore ensure that patients understand the uncertainties and the alternative treatment options. They should provide them with clear written information and, in addition, use of the Institute's information for the public is recommended.
1.3 Further research and audit should address quality of life, clinical outcomes and long-term survival.