2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a common problem caused by disturbance of sphincter function at the lower end of the oesophagus. Symptoms include heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, nausea, respiratory difficulties and dysphagia. If untreated, complications such as Barrett's oesophagus or oesophageal stricture can develop.
2.2 Lifestyle modification and gastric acidity‑lowering medication can help to improve symptoms. Patients who have refractory symptoms, who develop complications despite medication or who develop intolerance to medication may be considered for anti‑reflux surgery. Most commonly this is laparoscopic fundoplication but alternative endoscopic techniques have also been used.