1.1 Current evidence on the safety and efficacy of endoscopic bipolar radiofrequency ablation for treating biliary obstructions caused by cholangiocarcinoma or pancreatic adenocarcinoma is inadequate in quantity and quality. Therefore, this procedure should only be used in the context of research.
1.2 Further research, in the form of comparative or observational studies, should document details of patient selection and should report all adverse events. Outcomes should include survival, quality of life, biliary patency and the need for further procedures.
1.3 Clinicians should consider entering patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma into the EndoHPB 1001 trial.