2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Biliary obstruction due to cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma causes symptoms including jaundice, nausea, bloating and abdominal pain. Surgical resection is often not possible.
2.2 Current management of unresectable cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer includes biliary stenting done at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), chemotherapy, biological therapies (for example, monoclonal antibodies), radiation therapy and photodynamic therapy. Stents often need to be replaced because of blockage by tumour ingrowth.