2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance with or without inadequate pancreatic insulin secretion. It is most commonly seen in people with obesity or who are overweight. Presenting symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia and fatigue. Type 2 diabetes is commonly associated with raised blood pressure, abnormal blood lipid levels and a tendency to atherosclerosis. This combination is often described as the 'metabolic syndrome', which is associated with fatty liver and abdominal adiposity (increased waist circumference).
2.2 Type 2 diabetes is managed by lifestyle and dietary changes, exercise and oral antidiabetic drugs (as recommended in NICE's guideline on type 2 diabetes). If blood glucose levels remain poorly controlled, subcutaneous insulin injections may be needed.