2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Osteoarthritis of the knee is the result of progressive deterioration of the articular cartilage and menisci of the joint. Articular cartilage deteriorates because of injury, or wear and tear. This leads to exposure of the bone surface. Symptoms include pain, stiffness, swelling and difficulty walking.
2.2 Treatment for knee osteoarthritis depends on the severity of the disease. Conservative treatments include analgesics and corticosteroid injections to relieve pain and inflammation, and physiotherapy and prescribed exercise to improve function and mobility. When symptoms are severe, surgery may be indicated. Options include upper tibial osteotomy, microfracture surgery, and unicompartmental or total knee replacement.