3 The procedure

3 The procedure

3.1 Electrical stimulation of the lower oesophageal sphincter aims to strengthen a weak or improperly functioning lower oesophageal sphincter muscle, to restore the anti‑reflux barrier between the stomach and oesophagus, by using low energy electrical impulses.

3.2 With the patient under general anaesthesia, 2 electrodes and a lead are implanted into the sphincter muscle using a laparoscope under endoscopic guidance. The lead is passed through the abdominal wall and is secured to a stimulator, which is implanted in a subcutaneous pocket in the abdominal wall.

3.3 The stimulator automatically delivers impulses of about 3 mA to 8 mA to the electrodes in repeated 30‑minute sessions. The patient does not feel the stimulation. The stimulator is programmed and controlled wirelessly to adapt it to specific patient needs (for example, related to diet and lifestyle).

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)