2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 The paranasal sinuses are air‑filled cavities located within the bony structures of the face. They are connected to the nasal space via small openings (ostia). Rhinosinusitis occurs when the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses becomes inflamed and infected. Typical symptoms include fever, pain and tenderness over the infected area, together with a blocked or runny nose. Acute rhinosinusitis frequently resolves spontaneously with little or no treatment, but it can become chronic.
2.2 The symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis are usually managed with analgesics, antibiotics, topical corticosteroids or nasal irrigation. If these interventions fail, surgical procedures may be needed to enhance drainage from the sinuses. However, adhesions and scarring may develop after surgery, compromising drainage. Scarring occurs less frequently if the mucosa remains intact. Foam dressings, nasal packing and middle meatal spacers are sometimes used after surgery to try to maintain sinus patency.