2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Stress urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine during exercise or certain movements such as coughing, sneezing and laughing. In women, it is most commonly associated with previous pregnancy, with or without recognised obstetric trauma. Previous urogynaecological surgery may also result in stress urinary incontinence.
2.2 A NICE guideline on urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse in women describes recommendations for the management of urinary incontinence in women. Conventional treatment is conservative, and includes lifestyle changes such as weight loss and pelvic floor muscle training. Surgery is considered if these conservative measures do not help. Different types of surgery may be used including intramural bulking procedures, insertion of a synthetic tension-free vaginal tape, insertion of a transobturator tape or other sling procedures, and colposuspension. When previous surgery has failed, insertion of an artificial urinary sphincter may be needed.