1.1 Current evidence on the safety and efficacy of bronchoscopic thermal vapour ablation for upper-lobe emphysema is inadequate in quantity and quality. Therefore, the procedure should only be used in the context of research. Find out what only in research means on the NICE interventional procedures guidance page.
1.2 Further research should evaluate safety and efficacy in the short and long term and include details of patient selection. NICE may update the guidance on publication of further evidence.