2 The condition, current treatments and procedure
2.2 Rehabilitation is described in NICE's guidelines on rehabilitation after critical illness, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure. Management for muscle weakness or dysfunction caused by chronic respiratory conditions, chronic heart failure or chronic kidney disease includes lifestyle change, medication (including oxygen therapy), rehabilitation (such as pulmonary rehabilitation or cardiac rehabilitation) and treating the underlying conditions.
2.3 Electrical stimulation produces muscle contractions that aim to mimic exercise training. Small electrical impulses are applied to nerves supplying groups of muscles typically in either the arms or legs, using self-adhesive electrodes applied to the skin and connected to an electrical stimulator. This causes the muscles supplied by the nerve to contract and relax. A typical programme consists of 30 to 60 minutes of stimulation.