Appendix D: Gaps in the evidence

Appendix D: Gaps in the evidence

PHIAC identified a number of gaps in the evidence relating to the interventions under examination, based on an assessment of the evidence, stakeholder and expert comments and fieldwork. These gaps are set out below.

1. There is a lack of UK evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at increasing immunisation uptake among children and young people aged under 19 years, particularly among those who may not have been immunised or only partially immunised.

2. There is a lack of UK evidence on the differential effect of universal interventions to increase immunisation uptake across different groups. 

3. There is a lack of UK evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing uptake of the school leavers' booster vaccination.

4. There is a lack of UK evidence to determine whether removal of the barriers to accessing immunisation services increases immunisation uptake among children and young people aged under 19 years. Information is particularly lacking in relation to population subgroups at increased risk of not being immunised or only being partially immunised.

5. There is a lack of UK evidence to judge whether or not interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in children and young people aged under 19 have any unintended or negative effects. For example, on how repeat reminders to those who do not want their child immunised may affect their relationship with the GP.

6. There is a lack of evidence on the differential effect of using different professionals (such as nurses, GPs and other practitioners) to increase immunisation uptake among children and young people aged under 19 years. In particular, there is a lack of evidence on how this affects subgroups at increased risk of not being immunised or only being partially immunised.

The Committee made 5 recommendations for research. These are listed in section 5.

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)