5 Recommendations for research

5 Recommendations for research

PHIAC recommends that the following research questions should be addressed to improve the evidence relating to the effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention interventions. It notes that 'effectiveness' in this context relates not only to the size of the effect, but also to cost effectiveness and duration of effect. It also takes into account any harmful/negative side effects.

  • What impact do the following factors have on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to prevent the uptake of smoking in the UK:

    • age at intervention

    • socioeconomic group

    • gender

    • ethnicity

    • learning or physical disabilities

    • being in an especially high-risk group?

  • Which interventions are most effective at preventing the uptake of smoking among young people in sixth forms and further education colleges?

  • Are school-based 'denormalisation' approaches to smoking (similar to the US 'Truth' campaign) effective in the UK?

  • Is it more effective to focus on smoking prevention alone, or to deliver smoking prevention interventions as part of a broader substance and alcohol misuse prevention programme?

  • Are targeted, intensive smoking prevention interventions aimed at high-risk groups of school-aged children more effective than universal provision (to all school-aged children)?

  • Does peer-support and peer-education in UK-based educational establishments help discourage children and young people from taking up smoking?

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)