Appendix D: Gaps in the evidence

Appendix D: Gaps in the evidence

PHIAC identified a number of gaps in the evidence relating to the interventions under examination, based on an assessment of the evidence and expert comments. These gaps are set out below.

  • There is little UK evidence on how different factors such as age, gender, ethnicity or socioeconomic status affect the effectiveness or cost effectiveness of interventions based in schools and other educational establishments.

  • There is little evidence, particularly evidence applicable to the UK, of interventions likely to be effective with pupils who are most at risk of starting to smoke.

  • There is little UK evidence of the effectiveness of multi-component interventions, such as combining school-based with mass-media or family-based interventions.

  • There is little evidence of what elements of a programme work best to prevent smoking among children of different ages.

  • There is little evidence about how to make programmes culturally sensitive in a multi-cultural school or further education setting.

  • There is little evidence of the long-term effects of school-based smoking prevention programmes because young people are seldom followed-up after school leaving age.

  • There is no UK evidence on whether it is more effective to provide interventions focused on smoking prevention alone, or interventions to prevent a range of risky behaviours, including smoking.

  • There is a lack of evidence about how applicable programmes like the US 'Truth' campaign are to the UK because of the different policy and legislative climate in the UK. (The Truth campaign aims to educate children and young people about the environmental and human rights issues involved in the production and supply of tobacco.)

The Committee made six recommendations for research. These are listed in section 5.

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)