Appendix D: Gaps in the evidence
The Public Health Interventions Advisory Committee (PHIAC) identified a number of gaps in the evidence relating to the interventions under examination, based on an assessment of the evidence. These gaps are set out below.
1. There is a lack of evidence on how to prevent pregnant women who have given up smoking from taking up the habit again after giving birth.
2. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at:
a. encouraging partners and 'significant others' to help pregnant women to stop smoking
b. helping partners and 'significant others' who smoke to quit
c. establishing smokefree homes
d. helping women from certain demographic groups (for example, teenage girls and people from some minority ethnic groups) who smoke to quit.
3. There is limited, UK-specific evidence on:
a. how to increase the contact smoking cessation services have with pregnant women who smoke
b. the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of incentives to encourage women who are pregnant or postpartum to stop smoking
c. which elements of self-help materials are effective
d. the effectiveness of new media in encouraging pregnant women to give up smoking.
4. There is limited evidence on how and why some women spontaneously quit smoking when they become pregnant.
The Committee made 6 recommendations for research. These are listed in section 5.