5 Recommendations for research
The Public Health Interventions Advisory Committee (PHIAC) recommends that the following research questions should be addressed. It notes that 'effectiveness' in this context relates not only to the size of the effect, but also to cost effectiveness and duration of effect. It also takes into account any harmful/negative side effects.
1. Within a UK context, are incentives an acceptable, effective and cost-effective way to help women who smoke to quit the habit when they are pregnant or after they have recently given birth? Compared with current services, do they attract more women who smoke, do they lead to more of them completing the stop-smoking programme and do more of them quit for good? What level and type of incentive works best and are there any unintended consequences?
2. What are the most effective and cost-effective ways of preventing women who have quit smoking from relapsing, either during pregnancy or following childbirth?
3. What factors explain why some women who become pregnant spontaneously quit smoking? How do social factors (such as the smoking status of friends and family) affect any spontaneous or assisted attempt to quit smoking?
4. How can more women (including teenagers) who smoke and are pregnant or who have recently given birth be encouraged to use stop-smoking services?
5. Within a UK context, which types of self-help materials (including new media) help women who smoke to quit when they are pregnant or after they have recently given birth?
6. What are the most effective and cost-effective ways of helping particular groups of people who smoke to stop around the time of pregnancy? These groups include the partners of pregnant women, pregnant teenagers and pregnant women who live in difficult circumstances.
More detail on the gaps in the evidence identified during development of this guidance is provided in appendix D.