Appendix D Gaps in the evidence

Appendix D Gaps in the evidence

The Public Health Interventions Advisory Committee (PHIAC) identified a number of gaps in the evidence related to the interventions under examination, based on an assessment of the evidence. These gaps are set out below.

  1. There is a lack of detailed and systematically collected data about the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in England among South Asians, in particular, about the trends in its use over time, and the demographic breakdown of users.

  2. There is no evidence on which factors determine the particular variety of smokeless tobacco used by different people of South Asian origin.

  3. There is a lack of evidence about whether behavioural support or counselling (for individuals or groups) can reduce the prevalence of self-reported smokeless tobacco use among South Asians.

  4. There is a lack of evidence about the effectiveness of brief interventions (including brief advice) delivered by health and social care professionals to South Asians who use smokeless tobacco. There is also a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions delivered by community members or their peers.

  5. There is no evidence about whether adverse events and withdrawal symptoms prevent South Asians from quitting smokeless tobacco.

  6. There is a lack of evidence about whether changes in psychosocial factors (such as knowledge, attitudes or beliefs) impact on smokeless tobacco use among South Asians.

  7. There is no evidence about what effect the following have on smokeless tobacco quit rates:

    • intervention setting

    • different intervention components

    • level of intensity of an intervention

    • age of participants

    • ethnicity of participants.

  8. There is no evidence on whether or not smokeless tobacco cessation interventions are cost effective.

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