4 Recommendations for research
The Programme Development Group (PDG) recommends that the following research questions should be addressed. It notes that 'effectiveness' in this context relates not only to the size of the effect, but also to cost effectiveness and duration of effect. It also takes into account any harmful or negative side effects.
4.1 How can interventions to increase the uptake and effectiveness of stop smoking interventions in acute, maternity and mental health settings be improved? (Examples include the identification and referral of smokers and staff training.) What components of an intervention help ensure someone will take up the support they are offered? How many people in these settings complete stop smoking treatment?
4.2 How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness (in terms of 4-week, 6- and 12-month quit and relapse rates) of intensive stop smoking interventions for people using mental health services be improved and tailored for this group?
Does effectiveness or cost effectiveness differ by age, diagnosis, ethnicity, gender, inpatient or outpatient, sexual orientation or socioeconomic status?
What type of training do health professionals need to deliver these interventions? Examples might include training to: build up knowledge related to tobacco dependence, its treatment and links with mental illness; develop skills in delivering support; develop a positive attitude towards delivering interventions.
4.3 What is the effect and acceptability of approaches that aim to match nicotine dose (through licensed nicotine-containing products) to level of smoking addiction among women who are using maternity services?
4.4 Are stop smoking interventions that include incentives to quit effective and cost effective for people using secondary care services, including women who are pregnant or have recently given birth?
4.5 How effective and cost effective are stop smoking interventions for partners of pregnant and breastfeeding women?
4.6 How effective and cost effective are stop smoking interventions for parents and carers of children who are using secondary care services?
4.7 How effective and cost effective are interventions that use varenicline for people who are using acute, maternity and mental health services?
4.8 How effective and cost effective are relapse prevention interventions aimed at people who use secondary care services who have quit?
4.9 How can people who use secondary care services (particularly mental health services), staff and visitors, best be helped to temporarily abstain from smoking while in secondary care settings?
More detail identified during development of this guidance is provided in Gaps in the evidence.