5 Recommendations for research

5 Recommendations for research

PHIAC recommends that the following research questions should be addressed in order to improve the evidence relating to interventions in schools to prevent and reduce alcohol use among children and young people.

  • In relation to universal interventions delivered in English schools to prevent and reduce alcohol use among children and young people:

    • How does effectiveness and cost effectiveness vary according to: the setting (for example, state sector schools, pupil referral units, further education colleges); who delivers the intervention (for example, teachers, peers); the target group (for example, in terms of age, gender, and those who engage in risky behaviour).

    • What is the best way to ensure universal alcohol interventions do not lead to some children and young people increasing their intake of alcohol?

    • How do the following factors influence effectiveness and cost effectiveness: method of delivery (for example, session format, learning materials); content; frequency and duration of follow-ups; and parental/carer involvement?

  • How does effectiveness and cost effectiveness vary according to whether an intervention is delivered alone or as part of a wider substance misuse intervention?

  • What are the most effective and cost effective ways of identifying children and young people in schools who are at significant risk from drinking harmful amounts of alcohol?

  • What is the best way to ensure universal alcohol interventions carried out in schools meet the needs of children and young people who are disadvantaged or from a minority group?

  • What is the incidence, prevalence and consequence of:

    • short-term health and non-health-related outcomes resulting from alcohol use in childhood and adolescence (for example, absence from school, violence)?

    • attributable long-term health and non-health outcomes (for example, poor academic achievement, convictions, violence, adult socioeconomic status)?