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  1. Epiretinal brachytherapy for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) should only be used in the context of research. Research studies should address whether epiretinal brachytherapy reduces the progression of wet AMD and whether it can reduce the number of injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor agents (anti-VEGF) required. Long-term outcomes should be reported.

    Recommendation ID IPG415/1 Question Epiretinal brachytherapy for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) should only be used in the

  2. In people with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, are these follow-up regimens equally effective in terms of identification of progression, cost effectiveness and health-related quality of life? - Cystoscopic follow-up at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 months, and then annually, interspersed with non-invasive urinary tests. - Cystoscopic follow-up at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 months, and then annually thereafter.

    Recommendation ID NG2/3 Question In people with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, are these follow-up regimens equally effective

  3. Diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis:- In people with suspected (or under investigation for) chronic pancreatitis, whose diagnosis has not been confirmed by the use of 'first-line' tests (for example, CT scan, ultrasound scan, upper gastrointestinal [GI] endoscopy or combinations of these), what is the accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with or without secretin and endoscopic ultrasound to identify whether chronic pancreatitis is present?

    Recommendation ID NG104/1 Question Diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis:- In people with suspected (or under investigation for) chronic pancreatitis

  4. How effective and cost effective are the following in terms of long-term (12 month) quit rates, and also for NHS standard, short-term quit rates (at 4 weeks and 6 months) for smokeless tobacco (confirmed by saliva cotinine test)? - Pharmacotherapy combined with behavioural support and delivered by health professionals compared to brief advice, behavioural support or pharmacotherapy alone. - Brief interventions (including brief advice) delivered by community members compared to brief interventions delivered by health professionals. - Tobacco cessation services (including outreach services) that specifically focus on smokeless tobacco, compared to smokeless tobacco support provided by general tobacco cessation services. - Training for health professionals (such as midwives, dentists and dental hygienists) to identify users of smokeless tobacco and raise awareness among them of the associated health risks. - How does the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the above differ by: age, gender and ethnic origin of the recipient; the status of the person delivering the intervention; the way it is delivered; its frequency, length and duration; and the setting in which it is delivered?

    Recommendation ID PH39/4 Question How effective and cost effective are the following in terms of long-term (12 month) quit rates, and also

  5. More trials of apixaban compared with other low molecular weight heparin (LMWHs) in total hip and knee replacement would decrease the uncertainty of the clinical and cost effectiveness of these treatments. Trials directly comparing apixaban with rivaroxaban, dabigatran etexilate and fondaparinux would strengthen the evidence base for these comparisons.

    Recommendation ID TA245/1 Question More trials of apixaban compared with other low molecular weight heparin (LMWHs) in total hip and knee

  6. How can factors that contribute to the balance of health risks and benefits of sunlight exposure for different populations be quantified? What factors should be included in tailored messages for people with different characteristics and levels of exposure to the sun, including skin colour, age, occupation and lifestyle?

    Recommendation ID NG34/1 Question How can factors that contribute to the balance of health risks and benefits of sunlight exposure for

  7. How can interventions to increase the uptake and effectiveness of stop smoking interventions in acute, maternity and mental health settings be improved? (Examples include the identification and referral of smokers and staff training.) What components of an intervention help ensure someone will take up the support they are offered? How many people in these settings complete stop smoking treatment?

    Recommendation ID PH48/1 Question How can interventions to increase the uptake and effectiveness of stop smoking interventions in acute

  8. How can needle and syringe programmes encourage specific groups of people who inject drugs to use the service effectively? Examples include: those who have recently started injecting; women; sex workers; ex-prisoners; people who are homeless; people who occasionally inject drugs; and people who inject novel psychoactive drugs.

    Recommendation ID PH52/1 Question How can needle and syringe programmes encourage specific groups of people who inject drugs to use the

  9. How can referrals to other services after involvement in a lifestyle weight management service be as effective and cost effective as possible? This includes: re-referrals to a lifestyle weight management service, referrals to other tiers of weight management services or referrals to other specialist services (such as alcohol or substance misuse). In particular:- - How long should people wait before being re-referred to a programme? - Does re-referral to the same (or a similar programme) influence adherence, effectiveness or cost effectiveness? - In what circumstances should participants not be re-referred to the same (or a similar programme)? - Who is best placed to provide ongoing support after the programme, and does this differ according to whether someone completed the programme or met their weight loss goal? - Are there any unintended or adverse effects from repeated attempts to lose weight?

    Recommendation ID PH53/4 Question How can referrals to other services after involvement in a lifestyle weight management service be as

  10. How can the design and reporting of the outcomes used in intervention studies be improved, so researchers can identify 'active ingredients'? Which validated tools are effective at consistently measuring success, especially in relation to health and wellbeing, performance, productivity and in economic terms?

    Recommendation ID NG13/4 Question How can the design and reporting of the outcomes used in intervention studies be improved, so researchers

  11. How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness (in terms of 4-week, 6- and 12-month quit and relapse rates) of intensive stop smoking interventions for people using mental health services be improved and tailored for this group? Does effectiveness or cost effectiveness differ by age, diagnosis, ethnicity, gender, inpatient or outpatient, sexual orientation or socioeconomic status? What type of training do health professionals need to deliver these interventions? Examples might include training to: build up knowledge related to tobacco dependence, its treatment and links with mental illness; develop skills in delivering support; develop a positive attitude towards delivering interventions.

    Recommendation ID PH48/2 Question How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness (in terms of 4-week, 6- and 12-month quit and relapse

  12. How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of condom schemes in the UK be improved for people at most risk of STIs? How can we ensure the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the C-Card and other UK-based condom schemes for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies among groups at high risk? What are the essential components of an effective scheme?

    Recommendation ID NG68/2 Question How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of condom schemes in the UK be improved for people at