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  1. Women should be informed that the effects on the likelihood of Caesarean Section (CS) of complementary therapies used during labour (such as acupuncture, aromatherapy, hypnosis, herbal products, nutritional supplements, homeopathic medicines, and Chinese medicines) have not been properly evaluated and further research is needed before such interventions can be recommended. [2004]

    Recommendation ID CG132/10 Question Women should be informed that the effects on the likelihood of Caesarean Section (CS) of complementary

  2. Further research is recommended to resolve uncertainties about the cost effectiveness of fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant for the treatment of chronic diabetic macular oedema. This should focus on a group of patients whose condition is unresponsive to other available therapies, and include measures of efficacy and health-related quality of life. Research should focus on identifying appropriate utility values, taking into account the utility values for different levels of visual acuity and the relative relationship in utility values from treating the best-seeing and the worse-seeing eye. The appropriateness of generalising utility values from one group of eye conditions to another group would also be of value.

    Recommendation ID TA301/1 Question Further research is recommended to resolve uncertainties about the cost effectiveness of fluocinolone

  3. Further research on angioplasty and stenting to treat peripheral arterial disease causing refractory erectile dysfunction should provide clear details of patient selection. Efficacy outcomes should include procedural success (as measured by arterial imaging and blood-flow measurement), validated scoring systems of erectile dysfunction, and the duration of treatment effect. All complications should be reported. NICE may update the guidance on publication of further evidence.

    Recommendation ID IPG546/1 Question Further research on angioplasty and stenting to treat peripheral arterial disease causing refractory

  4. Further research on robot-assisted kidney transplant should include studies comparing robot-assisted kidney transplant with open surgery. This should collect data on patient selection, warm ischaemia times, the need for conversion to open surgery, graft function, and long-term graft and patient survival.

    Recommendation ID IPG609/1 Question Further research on robot-assisted kidney transplant should include studies comparing robot-assisted

  5. Further research on endoscopic carbon dioxide laser cricopharyngeal myotomy for relief of oropharyngeal dysphagia could include the publication of collaborative audit data. Reports should separate outcomes for different groups of patients; in particular for patients with primary neuromuscular dysfunction alone, those with associated phargyngeal diverticula and those with dysphagia caused by radiotherapy. Outcome measures should include dysphagia scores, quality of life, long-term outcomes and the need for further treatment. All complications should be reported. NICE may update this guidance on publication of further evidence.

    Recommendation ID IPG550/1 Question Further research on endoscopic carbon dioxide laser cricopharyngeal myotomy for relief of oropharyngeal

  6. Further research on the efficacy and safety of intranasal phototherapy for allergic rhinitis should include: details of patient selection including medication use; underlying medical conditions; the intensity, duration and wavelength of light used; patient-reported outcomes; comparison with existing treatments; and the effects of repeated long-term use. NICE may update the guidance if further evidence is published.

    Recommendation ID IPG616/1 Question Further research on the efficacy and safety of intranasal phototherapy for allergic rhinitis should

  7. Further research on implanting a baroreceptor stimulation device for resistant hypertension should document patient selection in detail and should specify the devices and techniques used, and any adjunctive therapies. It should describe the changes in blood pressure that are considered to result from baroreceptor stimulation, and those that might be caused by other factors. Outcomes should include the duration of effect of baroreceptor stimulation; device durability; and the complications of hypertension, such as myocardial infarction and stroke.

    Recommendation ID IPG533/1 Question Further research on implanting a baroreceptor stimulation device for resistant hypertension should

  8. Further research on the safety of unilateral MRI-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for treatment-resistant essential tremor, which could include randomised controlled trials, should address patient selection, report on functional improvement and quality of life, and provide long-term follow-up data.

    Recommendation ID IPG617/1 Question Further research on the safety of unilateral MRI-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for treatment-resistant

  9. Patient activation:- How effective and cost effective is advice, education or behavioural support offered by community pharmacy teams to improve patient activation and measures of behaviour and health changes, particularly in areas where activation levels are lower? This includes evaluating factors such as frequency, intensity and duration of the intervention.

    Recommendation ID NG102/5 Question Patient activation:- How effective and cost effective is advice, education or behavioural support offered

  10. How effective and cost-effective is the NHS Health Check programme? What are the patterns of uptake in relation to the demographics of the population and their degree of behavioural risk? What is the programme's effect on the development of dementia, disability and frailty? How feasible is extending the NHS Health Check programme to a younger age range?

    Recommendation ID NG16/5 Question How effective and cost-effective is the NHS Health Check programme? What are the patterns of uptake in

  11. How effective are different behavioural strategies in helping people to cut down, either in order to stop smoking or to reduce the amount they smoke? This should include an evaluation of behavioural support used on its own and evaluations of specific components of such support (such as scheduling). It should also include evaluations of different types of behavioural support and follow-up, delivered within a clearly defined harm-reduction intervention.

    Recommendation ID PH45/4 Question How effective are different behavioural strategies in helping people to cut down, either in order to

  12. How effective are interventions to help people reduce the amount they smoke (without the intention of stopping)? How great are the health benefits of smoking reduction (by substituting some cigarettes with licensed nicotine-containing products) compared to stopping smoking? What proportion of people who reduce the amount they smoke go on to stop smoking? How soon after starting to reduce the amount they smoke do they stop completely?

    Recommendation ID PH45/3 Question How effective are interventions to help people reduce the amount they smoke (without the intention of

  13. How effective are programmes that aim to prevent domestic violence and abuse from ever happening in the first place? This includes media-based public health awareness campaigns. It also includes social movements to establish people's rights, and community-building and primary prevention activities that tackle underlying assumptions in society. (Examples of the latter might include the role and status of women.)

    Recommendation ID PH50/1 Question How effective are programmes that aim to prevent domestic violence and abuse from ever happening in the

  14. How effective are the following interventions in the short, medium and long term, across various levels of risk and including diverse and marginalised groups: - advocacy - domestic abuse recovery programmes - perpetrator programmes - psychological or social interventions modified for domestic violence and abuse, including programmes for those who have suffered multiple forms of abuse and those who are still experiencing it - interventions for primary carers apart from mothers (for example, fathers, grandparents) - interventions for other family members?

    Recommendation ID PH50/3 Question How effective are the following interventions in the short, medium and long term, across various levels

  15. How can factors that contribute to the balance of health risks and benefits of sunlight exposure for different populations be quantified? What factors should be included in tailored messages for people with different characteristics and levels of exposure to the sun, including skin colour, age, occupation and lifestyle?

    Recommendation ID NG34/1 Question How can factors that contribute to the balance of health risks and benefits of sunlight exposure for

  16. How can interventions to increase the uptake and effectiveness of stop smoking interventions in acute, maternity and mental health settings be improved? (Examples include the identification and referral of smokers and staff training.) What components of an intervention help ensure someone will take up the support they are offered? How many people in these settings complete stop smoking treatment?

    Recommendation ID PH48/1 Question How can interventions to increase the uptake and effectiveness of stop smoking interventions in acute