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  1. How can interventions to increase the uptake and effectiveness of stop smoking interventions in acute, maternity and mental health settings be improved? (Examples include the identification and referral of smokers and staff training.) What components of an intervention help ensure someone will take up the support they are offered? How many people in these settings complete stop smoking treatment?

    Recommendation ID PH48/1 Question How can interventions to increase the uptake and effectiveness of stop smoking interventions in acute

  2. How can needle and syringe programmes encourage specific groups of people who inject drugs to use the service effectively? Examples include: those who have recently started injecting; women; sex workers; ex-prisoners; people who are homeless; people who occasionally inject drugs; and people who inject novel psychoactive drugs.

    Recommendation ID PH52/1 Question How can needle and syringe programmes encourage specific groups of people who inject drugs to use the

  3. How can referrals to other services after involvement in a lifestyle weight management service be as effective and cost effective as possible? This includes: re-referrals to a lifestyle weight management service, referrals to other tiers of weight management services or referrals to other specialist services (such as alcohol or substance misuse). In particular:- - How long should people wait before being re-referred to a programme? - Does re-referral to the same (or a similar programme) influence adherence, effectiveness or cost effectiveness? - In what circumstances should participants not be re-referred to the same (or a similar programme)? - Who is best placed to provide ongoing support after the programme, and does this differ according to whether someone completed the programme or met their weight loss goal? - Are there any unintended or adverse effects from repeated attempts to lose weight?

    Recommendation ID PH53/4 Question How can referrals to other services after involvement in a lifestyle weight management service be as

  4. How can the design and reporting of the outcomes used in intervention studies be improved, so researchers can identify 'active ingredients'? Which validated tools are effective at consistently measuring success, especially in relation to health and wellbeing, performance, productivity and in economic terms?

    Recommendation ID NG13/4 Question How can the design and reporting of the outcomes used in intervention studies be improved, so researchers

  5. How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness (in terms of 4-week, 6- and 12-month quit and relapse rates) of intensive stop smoking interventions for people using mental health services be improved and tailored for this group? Does effectiveness or cost effectiveness differ by age, diagnosis, ethnicity, gender, inpatient or outpatient, sexual orientation or socioeconomic status? What type of training do health professionals need to deliver these interventions? Examples might include training to: build up knowledge related to tobacco dependence, its treatment and links with mental illness; develop skills in delivering support; develop a positive attitude towards delivering interventions.

    Recommendation ID PH48/2 Question How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness (in terms of 4-week, 6- and 12-month quit and relapse

  6. How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of condom schemes in the UK be improved for people at most risk of STIs? How can we ensure the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the C-Card and other UK-based condom schemes for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies among groups at high risk? What are the essential components of an effective scheme?

    Recommendation ID NG68/2 Question How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of condom schemes in the UK be improved for people at

  7. Late access to services and compulsory and intensive treatment:- For people using adult mental health services, what are the personal and demographic factors associated with late access to services and an increased likelihood of compulsory and intensive treatment, and what are the key themes that are associated with poor engagement? This should include an examination of factors that impact on access to services among younger people and older adults.

    Recommendation ID CG136/2 Question Late access to services and compulsory and intensive treatment:- For people using adult mental health

  8. How do the newer AEDs compare in efficacy to the standard AEDs in the treatment of newly diagnosed epilepsy? Focal seizures: carbamazepine, eslicarbazepine acetate, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, pregabalin  and zonisamide. Generalised seizures: lamotrigine, levetiracetam, sodium valproate and zonisamide.

    Recommendation ID CG137/1 Question How do the newer AEDs compare in efficacy to the standard AEDs in the treatment of newly diagnosed epilepsy

  9. Long-term safety of tenofovir disoproxil in chronic hepatitis B:- Further research should be undertaken to determine the long-term safety of tenofovir disoproxil, including the risk of clinically significant hypophosphataemia and related bone toxicity, in people with chronic hepatitis B. The cost effectiveness of routine monitoring for phosphate loss and bone disease in people with chronic hepatitis B who are receiving tenofovir disoproxil treatment needs further evaluation.

    Recommendation ID CG165/3 Question Long-term safety of tenofovir disoproxil in chronic hepatitis B:- Further research should be undertaken

  10. NICE recommended the collection of data on prosthesis failure or on the prevalence of people living with a failed hip but for whom revision surgery is not suitable or who choose not to have revision surgery. NICE further recommended that nomenclature for hip replacement failure needs to be established to allow demarcation of prosthesis-dependent and prosthesisindependent hip replacement failure. Furthermore, patient reported outcome measures collected as part of the National Joint Registry should allow for reporting of hip replacement failure in people who cannot or choose not to have revision surgery.

    Recommendation ID TA304/2 Question NICE recommended the collection of data on prosthesis failure or on the prevalence of people living

  11. NICE recommends further research comparing the clinical effectiveness of all 3 viscoelastometric devices (ROTEM, TEG and Sonoclot systems) in cardiac surgery and in the emergency control of bleeding after trauma and during postpartum haemorrhage. In particular, NICE recommends research to determine which of the parameters included in the viscoelastometric testing systems are the most significant in changing clinical decision-making and improving clinical outcomes. The degree of change needed in these parameters to affect clinical decision-making and clinical outcomes should also be considered.

    Recommendation ID DG13/3 Question NICE recommends further research comparing the clinical effectiveness of all 3 viscoelastometric devices

  12. NICE recommends further research comparing the clinical effectiveness of different early rule-out test protocols using high-sensitivity assays which meet the criteria applied for this assessment. NICE recommends that future studies should include consideration of the clinical effectiveness of different test strategies including those employing low diagnostic thresholds, and the impact of different test strategies on both clinician behaviour and the health system, with a view to reducing uncertainty in the economic model. Future studies should also investigate the role of sex and age-specific 99th percentile thresholds in the assessment of suspected acute coronary syndrome. The Committee also considered that it would be appropriate to include adjudication with high-sensitivity troponin assays at time points earlier than 10–12 hours as the reference standard in future studies.

    Recommendation ID DG15/3 Question NICE recommends further research comparing the clinical effectiveness of different early rule-out test

  13. NICE recommends further research in using viscoelastometric testing in the emergency control of bleeding after trauma and during postpartum haemorrhage to assess its effectiveness compared with standard laboratory testing. NICE recommends that outcomes should include, but may not be limited to, bleeding outcomes, mortality, duration of hospital or intensive care unit stay, transfusion rates and volumes transfused.

    Recommendation ID DG13/2 Question NICE recommends further research in using viscoelastometric testing in the emergency control of bleeding

  14. NICE recommends further research to better inform future cost-effectiveness models of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In particular, this research should include a more comprehensive synthesis of available evidence on the underlying disease progression of multiple sclerosis in the UK context, the impact of disability and relapses on preference-based measures of quality of life, and associated resource use and costs.

    Recommendation ID TA320/1 Question NICE recommends further research to better inform future cost-effectiveness models of relapsing-remitting