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  1. Acceptability of drug misuse prevention interventions:- How acceptable are drug misuse prevention interventions among groups vulnerable to drug misuse in the UK? How acceptable are drug misuse prevention interventions among practitioners in the UK? How can acceptability be improved for groups that are vulnerable to drug misuse and practitioners?

    Recommendation ID NG64/4 Question Acceptability of drug misuse prevention interventions:- How acceptable are drug misuse prevention interventions

  2. How can factors that contribute to the balance of health risks and benefits of sunlight exposure for different populations be quantified? What factors should be included in tailored messages for people with different characteristics and levels of exposure to the sun, including skin colour, age, occupation and lifestyle?

    Recommendation ID NG34/1 Question How can factors that contribute to the balance of health risks and benefits of sunlight exposure for

  3. How can interventions to increase the uptake and effectiveness of stop smoking interventions in acute, maternity and mental health settings be improved? (Examples include the identification and referral of smokers and staff training.) What components of an intervention help ensure someone will take up the support they are offered? How many people in these settings complete stop smoking treatment?

    Recommendation ID PH48/1 Question How can interventions to increase the uptake and effectiveness of stop smoking interventions in acute

  4. How can needle and syringe programmes encourage specific groups of people who inject drugs to use the service effectively? Examples include: those who have recently started injecting; women; sex workers; ex-prisoners; people who are homeless; people who occasionally inject drugs; and people who inject novel psychoactive drugs.

    Recommendation ID PH52/1 Question How can needle and syringe programmes encourage specific groups of people who inject drugs to use the

  5. How can referrals to other services after involvement in a lifestyle weight management service be as effective and cost effective as possible? This includes: re-referrals to a lifestyle weight management service, referrals to other tiers of weight management services or referrals to other specialist services (such as alcohol or substance misuse). In particular:- - How long should people wait before being re-referred to a programme? - Does re-referral to the same (or a similar programme) influence adherence, effectiveness or cost effectiveness? - In what circumstances should participants not be re-referred to the same (or a similar programme)? - Who is best placed to provide ongoing support after the programme, and does this differ according to whether someone completed the programme or met their weight loss goal? - Are there any unintended or adverse effects from repeated attempts to lose weight?

    Recommendation ID PH53/4 Question How can referrals to other services after involvement in a lifestyle weight management service be as

  6. How can the design and reporting of the outcomes used in intervention studies be improved, so researchers can identify 'active ingredients'? Which validated tools are effective at consistently measuring success, especially in relation to health and wellbeing, performance, productivity and in economic terms?

    Recommendation ID NG13/4 Question How can the design and reporting of the outcomes used in intervention studies be improved, so researchers

  7. How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness (in terms of 4-week, 6- and 12-month quit and relapse rates) of intensive stop smoking interventions for people using mental health services be improved and tailored for this group? Does effectiveness or cost effectiveness differ by age, diagnosis, ethnicity, gender, inpatient or outpatient, sexual orientation or socioeconomic status? What type of training do health professionals need to deliver these interventions? Examples might include training to: build up knowledge related to tobacco dependence, its treatment and links with mental illness; develop skills in delivering support; develop a positive attitude towards delivering interventions.

    Recommendation ID PH48/2 Question How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness (in terms of 4-week, 6- and 12-month quit and relapse

  8. How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of condom schemes in the UK be improved for people at most risk of STIs? How can we ensure the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the C-Card and other UK-based condom schemes for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies among groups at high risk? What are the essential components of an effective scheme?

    Recommendation ID NG68/2 Question How can the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of condom schemes in the UK be improved for people at

  9. How cost effective are preventive approaches to vitamin D deficiency among all at-risk groups, compared with the cost of testing and treatment? This should include a comparison of universal provision of free supplements with the provision of low or standard cost supplements for different at-risk groups. (If there is any new legislation allowing for the sale of Healthy Start supplements, this would provide an opportunity to test this question.)

    Recommendation ID PH56/2 Question How cost effective are preventive approaches to vitamin D deficiency among all at-risk groups, compared

  10. How do the following factors affect the nursing staff requirement at ward level in the UK? - Patient factors - Patients' nursing needs (sometimes referred to as acuity and dependency) - Time of day - Ward layout and size (including the use of single rooms) - Ward level team leadership and management - Organisational training approaches - Organisational policies and procedures (for example, productive ward, Lean)

    Recommendation ID SG1/2 Question How do the following factors affect the nursing staff requirement at ward level in the UK? - Patient factors

  11. Characteristics of a person delivering an intervention:- How do the professional characteristics of pharmacy staff affect the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of delivering information, advice, education or behavioural support to underserved groups and the general population? (Characteristics include, for example, job roles such as health champion, as well as competencies and level of training.)

    Recommendation ID NG102/4 Question Characteristics of a person delivering an intervention:- How do the professional characteristics of

  12. How effective and cost effective are different types of exercise referral scheme? Compare the relative effects of different models in controlled studies. Include health-related quality of life as an outcome. Compare exercise referral schemes that vary by: - setting – for example, home-based, gym-based, community-based or outdoors - intensity and duration – for example, a 12-week scheme involving 1 session a week, or a 6-week scheme involving 4 1-hour sessions per week - the techniques used, for example, some use additional 'supportive' techniques such as 'motivational interviewing' and education sessions - the target group, for example, people who are overweight and obese, people with raised blood pressure or cholesterol levels or those experiencing mild depression, anxiety or stress; or by age, gender, race or socioeconomic status - other scheme characteristics including: design, content and delivery; referral mechanisms; choice of activity; cost and qualifications of instructors; and whether it is commissioned and delivered by an NHS, non-NHS or community-based organisation.

    Recommendation ID PH54/1 Question How effective and cost effective are different types of exercise referral scheme? Compare the relative

  13. People with limited mobility:- How effective and cost effective are environmental changes to increase physical activity among people with limited mobility because of either enduring or life-stage specific factors (for example, small children, parents with prams or buggies, disabled people including those with sensoryimpairments and learning disabilities, older people, people with dementia and their carers)? Are effects maintained over time?

    Recommendation ID NG90/4 Question People with limited mobility:- How effective and cost effective are environmental changes to increase

  14. Use of public open spaces by particular groups:- How effective and cost effective are environmental changes to increase physical activity through use of public open spaces (including blue, green and grey spaces) by the following groups:- black and minority ethnic groups- groups with low socioeconomic status- groups experiencing other forms of disadvantage, for example carers, people with severe mental health conditions?Are effects maintained over time?

    Recommendation ID NG90/3 Question Use of public open spaces by particular groups:- How effective and cost effective are environmental changes