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  1. Primary care testing:- Diagnostic accuracy studies of tests accessible to primary care should be carried out for a given cancer in symptomatic people. Priority areas for research should include tests for people with cough, non-visible haematuria, suspected prostate cancer, suspected pancreatic cancer, suspected cancer in childhood and young people and other suspected rare cancers. Outcomes of interest are the performance characteristics of the test, particularly sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values.

    Recommendation ID NG12/2 Question Primary care testing:- Diagnostic accuracy studies of tests accessible to primary care should be carried

  2. Cancers insufficiently researched in primary care:- Observational studies of symptomatic primary care patients should be used to estimate the positive predictive value of different symptoms for specific cancers. Priority areas for research are those where the evidence base is currently insufficient and should include prostate cancer,pancreatic cancer, cancer in childhood and young people and other rare cancers. Outcomes of interest are positive predictive values and likelihood ratios for cancer.

    Recommendation ID NG12/3 Question Cancers insufficiently researched in primary care:- Observational studies of symptomatic primary care

  3. Age thresholds in cancer:- Longitudinal studies should be carried out to identify and quantify factors in adults that are associated with development of specific cancers at a younger age than the norm. They should be designed to inform age thresholds in clinical guidance. The primary outcome should be likelihood ratios and positive predictive values for cancer occurring in younger age groups.

    Recommendation ID NG12/1 Question Age thresholds in cancer:- Longitudinal studies should be carried out to identify and quantify factors

  4. Patient experience:- Qualitative studies are needed to assess the key issues in patient experience and patient information needs in the cancer diagnostic pathway, particularly in the interval between first presentation to primary care and first appointment in secondary care. Outcomes of interest are patient satisfaction, quality of life and patient perception of the quality of care and information.

    Recommendation ID NG12/4 Question Patient experience:- Qualitative studies are needed to assess the key issues in patient experience and

  5. NICE encourages further research into the use of a wireless capsule to assess motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Studies should include clear details of patient selection. They should report on the diagnostic accuracy of the procedure in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, and should provide data on the clinical benefits of the procedure for patients.

    Recommendation ID IPG502/1 Question NICE encourages further research into the use of a wireless capsule to assess motility of the gastrointestinal

  6. NICE encourages further research into transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) of the rectum. Patient selection should be explicitly documented. If the procedure is used to treat malignancy, outcomes should include completeness of excision, recurrence rates, survival, quality of life outcomes and avoidance of the need for a stoma in the long term. All complications should be reported, specifically including incontinence.

    Recommendation ID IPG514/1 Question NICE encourages further research into transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) of the rectum. Patient

  7. NICE encourages further research into transapical transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve implantation for a failed surgically implanted mitral valve bioprosthesis. This may include prospective observational studies. Studies should include details on patient selection, functional outcomes, quality of life, survival and complications. Studies should report long-term follow-up of clinical outcomes and valve durability. NICE may update this guidance on publication of further evidence.

    Recommendation ID IPG541/1 Question NICE encourages further research into transapical transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve implantation

  8. NICE encourages further research into transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for depression, which should document how patients were selected and any other treatments they were having. It should describe the precise method and regime used for administering tDCS. Outcome measures should include the duration of effect. NICE may update the guidance on publication of further evidence.

    Recommendation ID IPG530/1 Question NICE encourages further research into transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for depression