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  1. What are the most effective and cost-effective mid-life services and interventions in the long term for reducing behavioural risk, leading to healthier ageing and preventing or delaying the development of dementia, disability and frailty in later life? How can these be delivered in a consistent and sustainable manner? How can multiple interventions be effectively packaged to maximise efficiency? What are the barriers and facilitators to the uptake of services and interventions, and to the development and maintenance of healthy behaviours of people in mid-life? What are the effects on health inequalities?

    Recommendation ID NG16/3 Question What are the most effective and cost-effective mid-life services and interventions in the long term for

  2. What are the most effective and cost-effective population-level measures to help people in mid-life maintain or adopt healthy behaviours and build up resilience to dementia, disability and frailty? What are the best methods for evaluating their effect? How do these measures affect health inequalities?

    Recommendation ID NG16/2 Question What are the most effective and cost-effective population-level measures to help people in mid-life maintain

  3. What are the most effective and cost effective ways of developing, implementing and assessing tailored and culturally appropriate community-level interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes among people at high risk? This includes people from a range of black and minority ethnic groups and those from lower socioeconomic communities.

    Recommendation ID PH35/2 Question What are the most effective and cost effective ways of developing, implementing and assessing tailored

  4. What are the most effective and cost effective ways to provide contraceptive services for socially disadvantaged young people to prevent unwanted pregnancies? In particular, what are the most effective and cost effective ways to provide contraceptive services for looked after children, those with learning difficulties, those who are not in education, employment or training or women who have had an abortion?

    Recommendation ID PH51/1 Question What are the most effective and cost effective ways to provide contraceptive services for socially disadvantaged

  5. What are the most effective ways of conveying complex risk messages and influencing behaviours in relation to over- and underexposure to sunlight? In particular, what are the most effective ways of using social and digital media? Consideration should be given to the following: how does effectiveness vary according to communicator, message, audience and medium? How does this vary at individual, group and population level in the UK? How does this vary for black and minority ethnic groups in the UK?

    Recommendation ID NG34/2 Question What are the most effective ways of conveying complex risk messages and influencing behaviours in relation

  6. What are the most effective ways of involving people from groups at increased risk in awareness-raising about, and promoting testing and treatment for, hepatitis B and C infection? Specifically, how cost effective are peer mentor programmes at increasing the number of people at increased risk who are tested and treated for hepatitis B and C?

    Recommendation ID PH43/6 Question What are the most effective ways of involving people from groups at increased risk in awareness-raising

  7. What are the natural frequencies of the avoidable harms that cardiotocography is intended to prevent for women who are assessed as being at low risk of complications at the start of labour? Does using cardiotocography in labours where complications develop confer a net benefit compared with intermittent auscultation?

    Recommendation ID CG190/5 Question What are the natural frequencies of the avoidable harms that cardiotocography is intended to prevent

  8. Using selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors in people with previous severe allergic reactions to non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:- Should all patients who have experienced a severe allergic reaction to a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) be assessed by specialist drug allergy services or should they be advised to take a selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2) inhibitor without further investigations if clinically appropriate?

    Recommendation ID CG183/3 Question Using selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors in people with previous severe allergic reactions to non-selective

  9. Validation of clinical early warning scores in pre-hospital and emergency care settings:- Can early warning scores, for example NEWS (national early warning scores for adults) and PEWS (paediatric early warning score), be used to improve the detection of sepsis and facilitate prompt and appropriate clinical response in pre-hospital settings and in emergency departments?

    Recommendation ID NG51/4 Question Validation of clinical early warning scores in pre-hospital and emergency care settings:- Can early warning

  10. Vascular access devices: skin decontamination:- What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of 2% chlorhexidine in alcohol versus 0.5% chlorhexidine in alcohol versus 2% chlorhexidine aqueous solution versus 0.5% chlorhexidine aqueous solution for cleansing skin (before insertion of peripheral vascular access devices [VADs] and during dressing changes of all VADs) in reducing VAD-related bacteraemia and VAD site infections?

    Recommendation ID CG139/6 Question Vascular access devices: skin decontamination:- What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of 2% chlorhexidine

  11. Vulnerable groups:- What are the most effective and cost-effective methods for identifying, assessing and managing the risk of type 2 diabetes among high-risk, vulnerable adults? This group includes: frail older adults, homeless people, those with severe mental illness, learning or physical disabilities, prisoners, refugees, recent migrants and travellers.

    Recommendation ID PH38/7 Question Vulnerable groups:- What are the most effective and cost-effective methods for identifying, assessing