• The technology described in this briefing is an albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) home test using smartphone technology. It is for screening of ACR for people at risk of chronic kidney disease.

  • The innovative aspects are that is allows non-clinical users to take semi-quantitative ACR measurements with a smartphone. They can do this in their own home and digitally share results with a clinician through existing electronic medical records (EMR).

  • The intended place in therapy would be instead of, or alongside, existing tests to detect microalbuminuria in people with diabetes or high blood pressure who are at risk of kidney disease.

  • The main points from the evidence summarised in this briefing are from a single-arm observational study involving 2,196 people with diabetes who were previously non-compliant with standard ACR testing. It shows that the technology can help improve ACR test compliance and that most people prefer home testing.

  • Key uncertainties around the evidence or technology are that there is currently limited long-term follow-up data evaluating the effect of the technology on kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. Available published data only report on patient satisfaction and uptake of the test during a 1‑month follow-up period.

  • The cost of the technology is estimated at £12.10 per person (excluding VAT). This includes the cost of the test kit, handling and shipping, and integration into EMRs. The estimated unit cost of standard quantitative urine testing is £6.