The following clinicians contributed to this briefing:
Dr Edward Sharples, consultant in renal medicine, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust. Did not declare any interests.
Ms Charlotte Trumper, clinical governance lead/acute kidney injury network chair (independent), Milton Keynes University Hospital. Did not declare any interests.
Dr Mark Devonald, consultant nephrologist, Liverpool University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Has publications in acute kidney injury (AKI) including methods of urine output and is a co-inventor of AKI urinary biomarkers with a US patent awarded (other territories pending).