• Three clinical studies were identified in which the RhinoChill system was used as an intervention for cardiac arrest: 1 randomised controlled trial, 1 single-arm observational study and 1 case study.

  • The randomised controlled trial demonstrated that the RhinoChill system reduced cerebral and core temperatures compared with standard care after cardiac arrest.

  • Two in-service evaluations of the RhinoChill system (uncontrolled observational studies) are being carried out in the NHS.

Adverse events and safety

  • Serious adverse events reported were cold-related tissue damage, epistaxis, hypertension and hypoxia.

  • In the randomised controlled trial, nasal whitening was the most common device-related adverse event, occurring in 14% of patients.

  • Epistaxis occurred in 3 treated patients and was serious in 1 patient with an underlying coagulopathy secondary to hepatic failure. This was the only device-related serious adverse event in the single-arm observational study.

Costs and resource use

  • The average cost of consumables per RhinoChill treatment is £1440.

  • No published evidence was found on the NHS costs of adopting the technology or resource consequences.

Technical factors

  • The RhinoChill system is intended for starting and continuing temperature reduction in patients until systematic cooling methods can be used. It is an adjunct to systemic temperature control systems that maintain and reverse hypothermia.