The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland on intramural urethral bulking procedures for stress urinary incontinence.


Stress urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine during exercise or movements such as coughing, sneezing and laughing. It is usually caused by weak or damaged muscles and connective tissues in the pelvic floor, compromising urethral support, or by weakness of the urethral sphincter itself.

Typically, first-line treatment is conservative and includes pelvic floor muscle training, electrical stimulation, and biofeedback. If the condition does not improve, surgical alternatives in women may include colposuspension, tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), transobturator tape, and traditional suburethral slings.

The injection of bulking agents into the wall of the urethra is usually performed under local anaesthesia. A cystoscope is inserted into the urethra to locate the areas where the bulking agent should be introduced. After injection of local anaesthetic, several millilitres of bulking agent are injected into the submucosal tissue at the level of the proximal urethra just distal to the bladder neck. The injections may be administered transurethrally through the cystoscope or paraurethrally via small perineal incisions.

Coding recommendations

M56.3 Endoscopic injection of inert substance into outlet of female bladder