Appendix D: Technical detail on the criteria for audit

Appendix D: Technical detail on the criteria for audit

Possible objectives for an audit

One or more audits could be carried out in different care settings to ensure that:

  • individuals with OCD or BDD are involved in their care

  • treatment options are appropriately offered and provided for individuals with OCD or BDD.

People that could be included in an audit and time period for selection

A single audit could include all individuals with OCD or BDD. Alternatively, individual audits could be undertaken on specific groups of individuals such as:

  • people with OCD or BDD at a particular stage (for example, to study assessment)

  • a sample of people with OCD or BDD from particular populations in primary care.

Measures that could be used as a basis for an audit

Please see tables below.

1. Possible objective for audit

To improve access to specialist OCD/BDD multidisciplinary healthcare across the individual's lifespan

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

Each PCT, mental healthcare trust, and children's trust that provides mental health services has access to a specialist multidisciplinary OCD/BDD team.

  1. Operational policies in each PCT, mental healthcare trust and children's trust that provides mental health services specify procedure for accessing specialist OCD/BDD team

  2. Specialist teams offer a liaison function to other mental health professionals

None

A specialist OCD/BDD team is able to conduct expert assessment, specialist cognitive‑behavioural and pharmacological treatment and provide age‑appropriate care

A liaison function will aim to: increase skills in the assessment and evidence‑based treatment of people with OCD or BDD; provide high‑quality advice; aid understanding of the needs of family/carers and developmental needs

2. Possible objective for audit

To decrease delays in the patient pathway for people who are re‑referred for treatment of OCD/BDD

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

People with OCD or BDD who have relapsed following successful treatment are seen by a healthcare professional as soon as possible if re‑referred, and where there has been no response to treatment are appropriately supported.

  1. Operational policies indicate the re‑referral pathway

  2. Operational policies indicate that care coordination or other suitable process is followed for people where there has been no response to treatment

Person with OCD or BDD refuses re‑referral

None

3. Possible objective for audit

To improve the initial treatment of adults who have mild OCD or BDD, or those who prefer a low intensity psychological treatment

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

In their initial treatment, adults who have mild OCD or BDD, or those who express a preference, are offered a low intensity psychological treatment.

  1. Clinical notes indicate that people are informed of low intensity treatment options

  2. Clinical notes indicate the clinical outcome of low intensity interventions

  • Adults with moderate to severe OCD or BDD

  • Children and young people

  • Adults who refuse this treatment

Low intensity treatments (less than 10 therapist hours) include:

  • brief individual CBT (including ERP) using structured self‑help materials

  • brief individual CBT (including ERP) by telephone

  • group CBT (including ERP) – note the patient may be receiving more than 10 hours of therapy in this format

4. Possible objective for audit

To improve the treatment of adults who have been unable to engage with, or where there has been no response to, low intensity treatment

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

Where adults have been unable to engage with low intensity treatment, or there has been no response to low intensity treatment, adults with mild OCD are offered more intensive treatment interventions.

  1. Clinical notes indicate that people have been informed of the possibility of intensive CBT (including ERP) or an SSRI

  2. Clinical notes indicate the clinical outcome of the intervention offered

  • Adults where there is improvement with low intensity interventions

  • Children and young people

  • Adults who refuse these treatments

More intensive treatment interventions include: a choice of either a course of an SSRI, or more intensive CBT (including ERP) (of more than 10 therapist hours per patient)

5. Possible objective for audit

To improve the treatment of adults who have OCD with moderate functional impairment

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

Adults who have OCD with moderate functional impairment are offered the choice of either a course of an SSRI or more intensive CBT (including ERP).

  1. Clinical notes indicate that people have been informed of the possibility of more intensive CBT (including ERP) or an SSRI

  2. Clinical notes indicate the clinical outcome of the intervention offered

Children and young people

More intensive CBT (including ERP) means: more than 10 therapist hours per patient

6. Possible objective for audit

To improve the treatment of adults who have BDD with moderate functional impairment

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

Adults who have moderate BDD are offered the choice of an SSRI or more intensive individual CBT (including ERP) or an SSRI.

  1. Clinical notes indicate that people have been informed of the possibility of intensive individual CBT (including ERP) or an SSRI

  2. Clinical notes indicate the clinical outcome of the intervention offered

Children and young people

CBT (including ERP) means: ERP that addresses key features of BDD.

7. Possible objective for audit

To improve the care of children and young people who have OCD with moderate to severe functional impairment and those who have OCD with mild functional impairment for whom guided self‑help has been ineffective or refused

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

Children and young people who have OCD with moderate/severe impairment or those with mild impairment where there is no response to guided self‑help, or where guided self‑help has been refused, will be offered CBT (including ERP) as the treatment of choice.

  1. Clinical notes indicate that the child/young person and the family/carer were informed of possibility of CBT

  2. Clinical notes identify the clinical outcome of CBT

Children and young people who refuse CBT (including ERP)

CBT (including ERP) means: treatment involving the family or carers and adapted to suit the developmental age of the child. Group or individual formats should be offered depending upon the preference of the child or young person and their family or carers

8. Possible objective for audit

To improve the care of children (aged 8–11 years) who have OCD or BDD with moderate to severe functional impairment if there has not been an adequate response to CBT (including ERP) involving the family or carers

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

Children who have OCD or BDD where there has not been an adequate response to CBT (including ERP) attend a multidisciplinary review (with family/carers) where the use of an SSRI is considered in addition to ongoing psychological treatment.

  1. Clinical notes indicate a multidisciplinary review occurred and identified that the use of an SSRI in addition to ongoing psychological treatment was explored in detail

  2. Clinical notes indicate that careful monitoring was carried out

  3. Clinical notes indicate the clinical outcome of the intervention offered

Children who respond to CBT (including ERP)

Children: aged
8–11 years

Careful monitoring: being seen frequently on an appropriate and regular basis agreed by the patient, his or her family or carers and the healthcare professional, and recorded in the notes

9. Possible objective for audit

To improve the treatment of young people (aged 12–18 years) who have OCD or BDD with moderate to severe functional impairment if there has not been an adequate response to CBT (including ERP) involving the family or carers

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

Young people who have OCD or BDD where there has not been an adequate response to CBT (including ERP) attend a multidisciplinary review (with family/carers) where the use of an SSRI is considered in addition to ongoing psychological treatment

  1. Clinical notes indicate a multidisciplinary review occurred and identified that the use of an SSRI in addition to ongoing psychological treatment was explored in detail

  2. Clinical notes indicate that careful monitoring was carried out

  3. Clinical notes indicate the clinical outcome of the intervention offered

Young people who respond to CBT (including ERP)

Young people: aged 12–18 years

Careful monitoring: being seen frequently on an appropriate and regular basis agreed by the patient, his or her family or carers and the healthcare professional, and recorded in the notes

10. Possible objective for audit

To improve the treatment of children and young people who have BDD

Criterion

Exception

Definition of terms

Children and young people with BDD are considered for CBT (including ERP) as first‑line treatment.

  1. Clinical notes indicate that the healthcare professional responsible has discussed the need for CBT (including ERP) and an arrangement has been made

  2. Clinical notes indicate the clinical outcome of the intervention offered

Children or young people who refuse treatment

Children: aged
8–11 years.

Young people: aged 12–18 years.

CBT (including ERP) means: involving the family or carers and adapted to the developmental age of the child or young person