The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland on Phototherapeutic laser keratectomy for corneal surface irregularities.


Eye disorders in which the outer clear layer of the eye (the cornea) becomes scarred, uneven, less flexible, or develops recurrent ulcers may result in loss of ability to focus sharply.

Phototherapeutic keratectomy uses a laser to remove layers of the cornea in order to produce a smooth, even surface with the aim of improving vision.

Coding recommendations

C44.4 Photorefractive keratectomy

Your responsibility

This guidance represents the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare professionals are expected to take this guidance fully into account. However, the guidance does not override the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.

Commissioners and/or providers have a responsibility to implement the guidance, in their local context, in light of their duties to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity, and foster good relations. Nothing in this guidance should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.

Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible.

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)