2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Adenomyosis is a benign condition characterised by the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. It frequently occurs coincidentally with fibroids. Adenomyosis may cause no symptoms but some women with adenomyosis experience heavy, prolonged menstrual bleeding with severe cramps, pelvic pain and discomfort.
2.2 Treatment for symptomatic adenomyosis includes anti-inflammatory medications, hormone therapy and endometrial ablation. For severe symptoms that do not respond adequately, hysterectomy has been the conventional surgical treatment. Uterine artery embolisation may be an alternative option for patients who do not wish to have hysterectomy and/or who wish to preserve their fertility.