2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common condition that affects older men. It is characterised by an increase in the size of the prostate, which is caused by an increased number of stromal and epithelial cells. Benign prostatic hyperplasia can cause lower urinary tract symptoms including hesitancy during micturition, interrupted or decreased urine stream, nocturia, incomplete voiding and urinary retention.
2.2 Mild symptoms are usually managed conservatively. Drugs such as alpha blockers and 5‑alpha-reductase inhibitors can be used. If symptoms are more severe, then surgical treatments may be used including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), transurethral vaporisation of the prostate, or holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (see The management of lower urinary tract symptoms in men [NICE clinical guideline 97]).