2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Emphysema is a chronic lung disease, which is usually related to smoking but may also be inherited. It is one of a group of diseases referred to as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Common symptoms of emphysema are dyspnoea, coughing, fatigue and weight loss.
2.2 Current treatment options include pulmonary rehabilitation (advice on smoking cessation, patient and carer education, exercise training and breathing retraining) and use of inhaled or oral bronchodilators and glucocorticoids. Some patients benefit from oxygen treatment. In advanced disease, lung volume reduction surgery (thoracoscopic or open), insertion of one‑way endobronchial valves, or lung transplantation may be needed.