2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Osteoarthritis of the ankle is the result of progressive deterioration of the articular cartilage of the joint. Articular cartilage deteriorates because of injury, or wear and tear. This leads to exposure of the bone surface. Symptoms include pain, stiffness, swelling and difficulty walking.
2.2 Treatment for ankle osteoarthritis depends on the severity of the disease. Conservative treatments include analgesics and corticosteroid injections to relieve pain and inflammation, and physiotherapy and prescribed exercise to improve function and mobility. When symptoms are severe, surgery may be indicated. Options include arthroscopic surgery (to remove loose bodies and bone spurs and to smooth the cartilage surfaces of the ankle joint), fusion surgery or total ankle replacement.