2 Indications and current treatments
2.1 Chronic low back pain may result from degenerative changes in the intervertebral discs or spinal facet joints. Conservative treatments include analgesics, non‑steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and manual therapy.
2.2 For people with severe, life-limiting, chronic low back pain that does not respond to conservative treatments, surgery may be appropriate. This may include bony fusion of vertebrae (to immobilise segments of the vertebral column thought to be responsible for back pain, using either a posterior or anterior approach) or inserting a prosthetic intervertebral disc (which preserves lumbar mobility to reduce the risk of degenerative changes in adjacent intervertebral disc spaces). Other surgical alternatives include non‑rigid stabilisation techniques.